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Full text of "California Garden, Vol. 57, No.1, February-March 1966"

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SINCE 1909 


VOL 57 NO. 








Third Tuesday, 8 p.m. Floral Building, Balboa Park 

Chairman — Mrs. Edward Penprase 

Regular Meeting, February 15, 8 p.m. 

J N Giridlian of Oakhurst Gardens, Arcadia, will bring us up-to-date on sev- 
eral recent developments in the plant world. He will talk on the bnstlecone 
pines thought to be the oldest living plants— practically living fossils stunted to 
remain alive. Irises that you seldom see, and something on his experiences col- 
lecting bromeliads in Central America, Brazil and Mexico will be discussed. He 
plans to bring specimen plants and also slides. 

Regular Meeting, March 15, 8 p.m. 
Coming from the Los Angeles area, Maria Wilkes, Consulting Horticulturalist, 
will talk on "Herbs for fun and profit." Also she has worked with many of the 
famous early nurserymen of the Los Angeles area, and she always has growing 
hints to pass on. 



For information, call Mrs. Roland Hoyt, Chairman, 296-2757 

1. Creative Arts Group, 10 a.m.-2 p.m. Call Mrs. Hoyt for time of meeting. 

2. Flower Arrangement Demonstration Class, 9:30 a.m. 

Last Monday of each month. Instructor: Mrs. J. R. Kirkpatrick 


Sunday, March 13, 2-5 p.m. 
Wild flower Garden of Chief Warrant Officer and Mrs. Paul Witham, 5175 
Sixty-eighth. It is at the north end of 68th St., 3 blocks north of El Cajon 
Boulevard. From Highway 80, turn south at 70th Street, and up the hill to 
Saranac, right to 68th St. A canyon slope has been utilized to recreate the native 
habitat for as many wild flowers as can be salvaged before the bulldozers move 
in. Mrs. Witham is constantly adding to her collection by seed and by gift. 






2- 6 




Sat. 2-10 
Sun. 10-6 


Sat. 1-6 
Sun. 10-6 




Theme: "Orchids 
Fri. 7-10 
Sat. 10-9 
Sun. 10-5:30 


San Diego Camellia Society 

Los Angeles Camellia Council 


Community Concourse 

S. D. Builders & Contractors Assn. 



San Diego County Orchid Society 

You are Invited fo 
become a member of 

Jke S^avt cUJieao 
^rtorai ^Arssoclaiiovi 

Membership includes: 

• Monthly meetings featuring 
outstanding speakers 

• A monthly Sunday afternoon 
garden tour 

• Subscription to CALIFORNIA 
GARDEN bi-monthly 

• Use of a large horticultural 

Fill in box with membership desired and 

mail with check to 

San Diego Floral Association 
Balboa Park, San Diego, Calif. 92101 

Classification of Memberships: 

Individual $ 5.00 D 

Family _ $ 5.50 □ 

Sustaining $10.00 □ 

Contributing $25.00 □ 

Nam e 


Zi p 


bi-monthly magazine 

Only $2.50 a year 

(add $1 for foreign postage) 


Balboa Park 

San Diego, Calif. 92101 

Please enter my subscription: 




State Zip. 


Among Our Contributors 

Ralph Ameele, President of the Or- 
chid Society, began growing orchids in 
Rochester, New York long before com- 
ing to California. He specializes in 
Cymbidiums and Cypripediums, and 
has been growing them for over 15 

Ray Greer, President of the Camellia 
Society has been growing camellias 
ever since a friend took him to a Los 
Angeles Camellia Show and he fell in 
love with their beauty. As a contractor, 
he is less busy with his business at the 
time of their highest bloom — winter- 
time and he can take the time to ap- 
preciate and care for them. 
Eleanor McCown lives on a large 
ranch in the Imperial Valley, near 
Holtville, where they raise carrots by 
irrigation. Besides caring for her fam- 
ily, she is well-known as a breeder 
and raiser of Spuria Iris. Wild flowers 
have been a hobby of hers for a long 
time, and she is fortunate to live in 
an area where they are still plentiful 
enough for her to enjoy her enthusiasm. 
Isamu Kawaguchi is an Art major at 
San Diego State College specializing 
in Ceramics. He is sponsored as a 
student by the U.S. citizen who was his 
English teacher in Japan. He is well 
known throughout San Diego County 
as a graduate Flower Arranger. Al- 
most all of the Flower Shows feature 
his arrangements. 

John Farleigh has been interested in 
roses ever since he was stationed in 
Columbus, Ohio, the home of the 
American Rose Society. Since his re- 
tirement from the Navy, he has lived 
in San Diego where he grows and 
cares for a rose garden of about 85 
plants. He is an active member of the 
local Rose Society. 

Dr. Dara Emery is Horticulturist at 
the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, 
Santa Barbara, California. 
Mrs. Henry Lippitt, author of / Mar- 
ried a New Englander, Come into the 
Garden and various columns, including 
the humorous Henry Letters in earlier 
issues of California Garden, is back 
with a group of nature vignettes. 
Watch for more. 


Vol. 57 

February - March, 1966 

No. 1 


Azalea Garden planting at a Bel Air estate, by Harvey F. Short, Coolidge Rare 
Plant Gardens. 


Fifth World Orchid Conference Ralph Ameele 4 

San Diego Botanical Garden Foundation 5 

Plants I Knew In Japan Isamu Kawaguchi 6, 7 

Favorite Camellias .. Ray Greer 8, 9 

Azaleas, Harbingers of Spring Harvey F. Short 10, 11 

The Green Years Clifford H. Pope 12, 13 

Dawn Redwood In San Diego Chauncy I. Jerabek 14, 15 

Wild Flowers On The Ben Hulse Highway ..Eleanor McCown 16, 17 

Fishhook or Pincushion Cactus R. Mitchel Beauchamp 29 

"Green Thumb" Origin 30 

Planting From Container To Clay Soil Dara Emery 30 


Cover, Garden Programs, Shows, Classes 2 

Contents and Contributors 3 

Aster fruticosa Recommended by Roland Hoyt 18 

A Book In The Hand Alice M. Greer 19 

Content With What Thou Seest Marion Almy Lippitt 19 


Down To Earth Gardening Ed Ogden 20, 21 

Bromeliads Mrs. Cleoves Hardin 22 

Roses John G. Farleigh 23 

Orchids ..Byron H. Geer 24 

Dahlias Larry Sisk 25 

Irises ..James E. Watkins .26, 27 

Fuchsias Morrison W . Doty 28 


Published Bi-Month!y by the SAN DIEGO FLORAL ASSOCIATION 
Floral Association Building, Balboa Park, San Diego, California 92101 

All rights reserved. 

Publication Board 

Alice M. Clark, Chairman; George A. La Poin+e; Janet H. Richards 

Editorial Staff 

Editor Vera Morgan 

Contributing Editors: 

Chauncy I. Jerabek, Alice M. Rainford 
R. Mitchel Beauchamp, Helen V. Witham 

Staff Photographer 

Betty Mackintosh 

Business Staff 

Business Manager Rosalie F. Garcia 

Office Hours: M-W-F, 10-3 
Phone 232-5762 


Joan Betts, A. Clark 

Advertising rates on request. 

California Garden is on the list of publications authorized by the San Diego Retail Merchants Associa 
tion. Entered as second-class matter. Dec. 8, 1910 at the Post Office at San Diego, California unde 
the Act of March 3, 1879. 

FEBRUARY, 1966 - MARCH, 1966 

"IL 'W»„U{J 'WerlJ of OrciiJ. 


by Ralph Ameele 

The largest and most spectacular dis- 
play of orchids ever presented will be 
the feature attraction of the Fifth 
World Orchid Conference, which will 
be held in the 50,000 square feet Long 
Beach Arena April 13 to 22, 1966. 
The show will be open to the public 
on Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, 
April 14, 15, and 16 from 10 a.m. to 
10 p.m. and on Sunday, April 17th 
from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. 

The Orchid Society of Southern 
California is the local host for the 

Conference which is jointly sponsored 
by the American Orchid Society and 
the Royal Horticultural Society of Eng- 
land. Previous World Orchid Confer- 
ences have been held in St. Louis in 
1954, in Honolulu in 1957, in London 
in I960 and in Singapore in 1963. 

The finest orchid flowers in the 
world will be entered in the competi- 
tive judging for the special gold, silver, 
and bronze medals plus the trophies 
and ribbons that will be awarded. The 
principal attraction will be 40 land- 






4 5 4-424 I 

* * 

^rrtistru in ^Svair 2/j, 



1180 Rosecrans 

San Diego 
phone 224-3209 

Virginia Georgion, Hgr. 



scaped garden type exhibits featuring 
orchids of every description with a 
background of tropical planting. 

In addition to the garden type ex- 
hibits, there will be numerous educa- 
tional and commercial exhibits and 
demonstrations to acquaint visitors 
with the latest techniques and products 
available to the orchid grower, ar- 
ranged by amateurs and commercial 
exhibitors and orchid societies, based 
on the show theme "The Wonderful 
World of Orchids." The San Diego 
County Orchid Society will be one of 
the exhibitors with a display of about 
200 feet in size. 

The American Orchid Society Bul- 
letin for October 1965 states the aims 
and purposes of the conferences: "The 
World Orchid Conference is an idea 
not an organization. Its basic premise 
is that all people who are interested 
in orchids — whether they are hobby- 
ists, botanists, commercial growers, or 
florists — and regardless of nationality 
or geographic location — have interests, 
purposes and problems in common. Its 
chief function is to bring together 
every few years as many orchid people 
as possible from all parts of the world 
in the belief that through personal 
contacts and friendships gained, the 
channels of world-wide communication 
can be extended, and the flow of in- 
formation increased and the bonds of 
fellowship strengthened throughout 
the orchid world. Thus through the 
combination of shows and exhibits, 
talks and demonstrations, and above 
all, personal exchanges during the 
numerous social activities, the aims of 
the Conferences have been achieved on 
a truly global scale." 

Many prominent speakers will pre- 
sent more than 40 papers by outstand- 
ing orchid growers and orchid authori- 
ties representing many countries. The 
educational and scientific value will be 
unsurpassed. These meetings will be- 
gin on Friday, April 15 in the Long 
Beach Municipal Auditorium Concert 
Hall adjoining the Arena and continue 
to April 19. There will be numerous 
social events for the delegates from 
all parts of the world plus opportuni- 
ties for them to visit orchid growers 
and various points of interest through- 
out Southern California. 

Invitations are cordially extended to 
all California Garden readers to 
attend both the local show (See 
p. 2, this issue) and the international 
one. Here is an opportunity to see 
locally the very best that the entire 
world has to offer in the colorful and 
fascinating field of orchids. 


are right 

at HOME 











•jJ^mTx l ^«°«x DOWNTOWN BROADWAY AT 7TH, 239-7581 
" L-'miii.I '-i f'^Btk tSCONDIDO 200 W GRAND AT MAPLE, 746-2222 
IL11L11I -(ljj||| fL C , J0H 200 s MAG N0LIA AVE . 442-9201 

Xarriiy **«» 'v** COLLEEE CtNTH 6080 EL CAJON BLVD., 583-1292 
H0RTH fARA 3921 30TH STREET, 297-2851 • MCIFIC HACK 1000 GARNET AT 
CASS, 488-1031 • rtDIRAL/IUCLIO 5100 FEDERAL BLVD AT EUCLID, 262-8611 

San Diego Botanical 
Garden Foundation 

COUNCIL approval of a future 
San Diego Botanical Garden on 
a site in Balboa Park as presented 
in the Bartholomew Plan, really gets 
the ball rolling. The long-hoped-for 
Garden Center will be built on the site 
of the present Food and Beverage 
Building on the northwest corner of 
Zoo Drive and El Prado, adjacent to 
the present Botanical Building. 

The San Diego Botanical Garden 
Foundation, Inc. is a new non-profit 
organization to assemble public sup- 
port for the construction and operation 
of the Garden Center. It was incorp- 
orated July 23, 1965 in order to legally 
acquire by gift, bequest or other monies 
and property to enable it to perform 
the purposes of the organization. 

A committee of three members from 
the Foundation Board of Trustees, 
made a formal appearance at the meet- 
ing of the City Council on Thursday, 
January 20, at ten o'clock to make 
notification to the Mayor and City 
Council of the foundation's organiza- 
tion and purpose. These were Samuel 
W. Hamill, Chairman, Stanley Miller 
and Larry Sisk. 

The Purpose of the Foundation is 
stated : 

To erect and maintain a garden center 
building in Balboa Park, to encour- 
age and stimulate interest in orna- 
mental and decorative horticulture 
and to encourage and develop and 
conduct research in various horticul- 
tural subjects through cooperation 
with educational institutions and 
through publication of literature and 
To develop and establish a horticul- 
tural center for Southern California, 
to encourage more extensive flori- 
culture and use of landscape design 
using ornamental plants and trees. 
To acquire by gift, bequest or other- 
wise monies and property to perform 
purposes of the organization. 
A million dollar fund-raising drive 
to implement the plans will be under- 
taken by the officers and trustees. Offi- 

cers include Virgil N. Shade, presi- 
dent; Stanley W. Miller, first vice 
president; J. Everett Henderson, sec- 
ond vice president; Edward R. Little, 
treasurer and Mrs. Joseph J. Ken- 
neally, secretary. A Board of Trustees 
has been set up and a Board of Coun- 
cilors to work with them. 

Memberships are open to everyone, 
including industrial, commercial, and 
other group memberships and horticul- 
tural and garden organizations. 

Twenty-four garden organizations in 
the San Diego area have been working 
for two years to get the organization 
and incorporation set up and ready to 
go to work. Now let's all show our 
support ! 

K-jarAcnincj <Js <y\ow 

WITH all the plans, from the 
White House on down, to 
beautify and add color to 
the landscape — it is well to pause and 
consider how much we are now spend- 
ing on this most wholesome hobby of 
gardening in America. 

It is estimated that one billion dol- 
lars went for seeds, bulbs and plants 
and half a million more for fertilizers 
and chemicals. 

There are fourteen million acres of 
lawn in the United States, forty-two 
million gardeners and fifteen thousand 
affiliated garden clubs, according to 
estimates. These estimates were made 
by H. B. Tukey, Sr., President of the 
International Society for Horticultural 
Science, and Professor emeritus at 
Michigan State University. He also 
stated that the value of horticultural 
specialties, including cut flowers, bed- 
ding and foliage plants and nursery 
crops has more than doubled in the 
past ten years. 

Here's to more and better garden- 
ing by all of us ! 

FEBRUARY, 1966- MARCH, 1966 

Plants I Knew In Japan 

Camellia Flower 


By Isamu Kawaguchi 

EACH one of us has memories 
which are associated with plants 
and flowers. In my case, the 
memories are of my country, Japan, 
where I was born, grew up, and which 
I left six years ago. Many little plants 
and flowers on the street, at flower 
shows, or in someone's garden remind 
me of the things I did ever since I was 
little — reminders so vivid, that they 
seem only yesterday. 

The other day, a notice was mailed 
to me from a friend; it contained the 
schedule for the camellia show. The 
word "camellia" reminded me of a 
large camellia tree we used to climb 
when I was in grade school. The tree 
was about 20 feet high with two main 
branches, one branch bore pink flowers 
and the other white with pink stripes. 
When the trees were in bloom, we 
strung the flowers to make leis. 

Camellias in Japan are used in many 
ways: The flowers are popular with 
flower arrangers, especially for those 
arrangements used in the tea ceremony. 
The seeds provide a good oil which is 
used in the better cosmetics as well as 
in cooking. The meat of the seed may 
be rubbed against the squeaky drawer 
or sticking door to make them work 
more smoothly; the large amount of 
oil that its seed contains, serves much 
the same purpose as beeswax, or a 
candle, in this country. 

The camellia trees can be grown as a 
hedge or garden tree or even used for 
"bonsai." They provide color for the 
winter garden when everything else 
has died. On frosty, cold, wintry 
mornings, I used to walk to school 

by Isamu Kawaguchi 

along a hedge of "Sasanqua" camellias, 
a mass of delicate pink blooms. The 
petals fell as soon as the buds were 
open, but they kept blooming all 
winter long. 

Another tree which belongs to the 
camellia family but which is not well 
known to us here is the tea tree, the 
young sprouts of which are used for 
making green tea. The flowers are 
creamy white, of five petals, with long 
stamens just like the camellia. Young- 
sters gather the young, tight tea buds 
and use them as ammunition for their 
pop guns — what fun that was! Tea 
trees are usually grown as hedge on 
property lines or to protect the garden 
or crops in the field. They are kept 
very low by constant trimming; this 
frequent trimming encourages many 
more branches which, in turn, provide 
more young tea leaves. Tea leaves are 
picked twice a year — both times in the 

Then I remember the chrysanthe- 
mums of all kinds which were planted 
in our neighbors' and my father's 
garden; they were of all colors and 
sizes. The young shoots of chrysan- 
themums are edible after they are 
boiled. They have a spicy flavor all 
their own — one of my favorite greens. 
They are usually eaten in a clear soup 
or simply with the addition of soy 
sauce. They should be good in salad, 

Have any of you ever visited a 
Japanese chrysanthemum show, espe- 
cially the chrysanthemum doll show? 
Once a year, in the fall, many parks 
and gardens have mum shows or mum 
doll shows. Mum doll shows are the 

particular ones I would like all of you 
to see. They are a type of combination 
flower and doll show in which all the 
costumes and sceneries are constructed 
of mums of all sorts and colors. The 
dolls are life size, the base of each is 
constructed of straw. If you can imag- 
ine the Rose Parade in smaller detail 
and scale, all made out of mums, you 
can get some idea. Some of these doll 
mum shows are open to visitors for as 
long as a month (the wilted blooms 
have to be replaced from time to time 
with fresh ones). 

The flower known to all the West- 
ern World as the cherry blossom is 
another flower that brings back many 
memories to me. "Sakura," as they are 
known in Japan, bloom all over the 
country; blooming starts in Kyushu 
Island to the south as early as in 
December, progressing on up to 
the northernmost island, Hokkaido, 
blooming there in June. There are 
about 350 kinds of cherry blossoms, 
all of them known for the short life 
of the flower after opening. In Wash- 
ington, D.C. scientists have succeeded 
to a certain extent in extending the 
bloom life of their cherry blossom trees 
by injecting a substance into each tree 
before bloom begins, but in Japan they 
are loved by many people for the 
short but colorful life of the blossom. 

In order to increase the viewing pe- 
riod, blossoms to be used for flower 
arrangements are cut when they are 
in bud. These are arranged alone most 
of the time, or perhaps with pine or 
some green plant for a contrast in 

The cherry tree leaves, after they are 

steamed, and then dried, are used to 
wrap rice cakes; they give a hint of 
cherry flavor — the delicate maraschino 
taste. Also, the blossoms are pickled 
in salt and dried, after which they are 
used for brewing a "cherry blossom 
tea." When hot water is added, the 
flowers open in the tea and color the 
water with pink. This tea was used for 
happy celebrations, but the custom is 
slowly dying out. 

We used to go to view the cherry 
blossoms twice a year — once in De- 
cember and again in April. There was 
a hot-spring, well-known to the Japan- 
ese, about 50 miles from where my 
family lived. The cherry trees in that 
hot-spring area bloomed in December 
because of its warm climate and the 
effects of the surrounding hot springs. 

But the best season was in April 
where, all over the hills and fields, 
wherever there was a cherry tree, all 
was pink clouds mixed with the green 
of wheat and yellow of the "na-no- 
hana," a mustard type of flower that 
blooms on a kind of greens which be- 
longs to the cabbage family. Even now 
I can visualize them clearly with snow- 
capped mountains in the background, 
and I shall remember forever the days 
I walked in the "blizzard of flowers," 
or, as the Japanese call it, "hana- 

Many of the garden magazines and 
catalogs remind me of the abundant 
flowers of Japan. For instance, the 
Lycoris radiata (Japanese name, higan- 
bana) is a wild flower which grows all 

Hydrangea arrangement by Isamu 

over the country. It has those red lily- 
shaped flowers with unusually long sta- 
mens. The Japanese, especially the 
older folks, regard them as a poison 
flower so, of course I, as a little boy, 
was taught not to touch them. Here 
in this country they are sold as garden 

The other day I saw an advertise- 
ment for an exotic thistle. It was a 
Japanese wild thistle; it grows on the 
sunny sides of hills and blooms all year 
round. It is one of our most disliked 
plants because of its prickly leaves and 
flowers. Often Japanese farmers hurt 
their hands on them when they are 
cutting grass in the rice fields and 
banks. Here in America they cost 
money to buy! 

The hydrangea is another one of 
these wild flowers. They are very small 
bushes usually growing in the under- 
brush of forests or in very damp shady 
places of mountains. The flowers are 
poor in color as a rule, and florets of 
bloom appear only along the edges of 
the cluster of buds. After the florets 
on the edge die out, then the next row 
appears, and so on. They continue 
blooming until the end of summer. 

Occasionally one will find a varie- 
gated-leaf hydrangea cultivated in a 
San Diego garden — this is a direct 
descendant of the wild one. The 
Japanese call this type "gaku ajisai" — 
namely, "framed hydrangea," for its 
flower formation. I always associate 
this variegated one with the places I 
used to frequent when in Japan: cool 
streams, groves of tall cryptomeria 
trees, and wild honeysuckle — which 
nearly always are found together. 

Oh yes, speaking of "found to- 
gether," the azalea is another flower 
which is often evidenced in those same 
places. From late June through July, 
one finds mountain azaleas, usually red 
in color, in most parts of Japan. When 
they are in bloom, the entire mountain 
side is red or sometimes pink. They 
do grow well in rocky mountain areas 
where they add immensely to the beau- 
tiful scenery. Often found with them 
are the blue mountain wisterias cling- 
ing to the tall pine trees or to the 
rocks and cliffs. 

The red azalea has a very sweet 
taste in the bottom of the flower where 
the nectars are. I remember well the 
time when, as a boy, we kids removed 
all the flowers from father's prized red 
"bonsai" in order to suck the sweetness 
from the flowers. And, for doing so, 
I received a few good spankings and 
had to stay in the house for three days. 
This was the most expensive sweet I 
was ever to taste. 

Wild red azalea blossoms are some- 
times used in rice cakes to add color. 
The flowers are picked, then pressed 
between two thin patties of sweetened 
rice paste and the confection is then 
steamed. This process causes the pastry 
to become semi-translucent, revealing 
the azalea flowers. They are placed on 
a serving plate atop a few needles of 
pine and served with tea. The pastries 
pick up a hint of the pine scent and 
are delightful. This type of confection 
was introduced to Japan from China, 
via Korea, not so long ago. 

I mentioned cryptomerias above; 
many in this country are not acquainted 
with these trees. There are a few of 
them on Park Boulevard in Balboa 
Park, near the large magnolia tree. 
When I was five years old, my family 
was forced to move from the city and 
live in the country because of the war. 
It was truly in the country where there 
was no electricity, no water service, no 
newspapers, no movies, no shops of 
any kind. We considered ourselves 
fortunate to have been able to rent 
some wealthy family's summer house. 
In front of the house there was a 
cryptomeria forest, many of the trees 
being 60 feet or more in height. On 
cold winter mornings, we made our 
fires of the fallen twigs of these trees. 
Moreover, the lower branches of the 
trees had to be cut away to encourage 
growth, so my father cut off many dead 
branches from which we made good 

(continued on page 13) 

Photo by Mackintosh 

Japanese Redwoods Cryptomeria 
japonica behind the Natural History 
Museum, Balboa Park. 

FEBRUARY, 1966 -MARCH, 1966 


Photo by Mackintosh 

Camellia Gulio Nuccio, 
grown by Ray Greer. 


by Ray Greer 

THERE are so many favorite 
camellias in our garden that if 
I should ever be so unfortunate 
as to have to settle for just one camellia 
and say "This is the one plant I would 
want above all others" I am afraid that 
I would be hard pressed to make a 

The one camellia that would come 
the closest to being my one choice 
would be Gulio Nuccio. We have a 
Gulio plant at the back door, and this 
year he seems to have outdone himself. 
For a month or so now he has been 
a mass of huge, well rabbit-eared red 
blooms. By way of definition, this 
means some of the petals are fluted and 
stand up much like a rabbit's ears. 
Gulio seems to be expressing his 
thanks for not having been hacked up 
last spring. He finally had a chance to 
show off his vigorous growth habits 
and healthy green pointed leaves so 
typical of Gulio. I think this is the 
first year since I acquired the plant that 
I haven't cut innumerable scions for 
grafting so poor Gulio has finally had 
a full season of undisturbed growth, 
excluding of course the occasional snip 
of a bit of branch with a flower for 
display. The blooms always seem hap- 
pier when picked with a smidgen of 
branch and a couple of leaves. 

Probably next in line and a very 
close runner-up would be Betty Shef- 
field Supreme. The original Betty 
Sheffield is a white with red and pink 
stripes and blotches and really quite 
handsome. She has given rise to quite 
a number of sports or mutations which 
have, in due course of time, made new 
varieties. She is often referred to as 

Sporting Betty. One of these, Betty 
Sheffield Supreme, is in my opinion 
the most outstanding. She has the 
same form as Betty Sheffield, semi- 
double to peony form with slightly 
waved petals, and the same vigorous 
growth habits. But there the similarity 
ends. The bloom of Betty Sheffield 
Supreme is white with a picotee or 
border of rose pink to red border 
around each petal. The effect, to me, 
is the epitome of bloom perfection. I 
don't produce the best Betty Sheffield 
Supremes in the world. More like the 
opposite effect is achieved. But when 
1 do get a good bloom I feel it more 
than compensates for the disappoint- 
ment in the other blooms and bull- 
nosed buds. When a camellia doesn't 
bloom well, the proper thing to do is 

■."■■■.■■■■'■.■'■■ . 

. ■ ■ . ■ ■■ ■■. ■■.■■.,■ : ■ : ■ 

blame it on the location or the dry 
weather or hot weather or wet weather 
or cold weather. But never, never 
blame it on your feeding or watering 
program or lack of T.L.C. (tender, 
loving care). This just wouldn't be 
cricket. When it comes to T.L.C, the 
biggest contributor to our plants is my 
partner and cohort, Ted Calloway. 
Without his continual attention to wa- 
tering, feeding, repotting and spray 
program I am afraid our plants would 
appear neglected. He seems to have 
been born with green thumbs on both 
hands. He can do more with a plant 
with a few touches here and there and 
a few kind words than I could by 
working over one full time. I might 
add that he feel Betty Sheffield Su- 
preme would be one of his top-rated 

■■■&. »; 

Photo by Mackintosh 
Camellia Betty Sheffield Supreme. (Ray Greer) White, pink bordered. 

favorites, but a most difficult decision 
to make. I think he loves them all too 
much to let any of them know he has 
a favorite. He has been known to tell 
a plant to either bloom or get its head 
cut off for grafting. And the plant 
responds with a magnificence of bloom. 
So who's to say you can't commune 
with a plant? 

In the whites there are a number of 
good camellias from which to choose. 
Probably the most flamboyant would 
be Coronation. It is a huge white 
semi-double somewhat open in form 
with flaring petals surrounding a mass 
of golden stamens in the center. Sim- 
ilar in growth and form is White 
Nun, but a little more open. Both are 
rank open growers, a detriment rather 
than a credit in my opinion. They 
don't make as nice a bush as some of 
the more fastidious growers. Onetia 
Holland and Silver Anniversary are 
more compact in their growth habits, 
with large semi -double flowers that are 
more full than either Coronation or 
White Nun. One of the older varie- 
ties and still one of my favorites is 
Elizabeth Boardman. Not as spec- 
tacular as some of the others, but it 
has large semi-double blooms with a 
rounded form and fluted petals. The 
old-time Finlandia is always a good 
choice and a good bloomer. I might 
throw in Grand Finale with a beauti- 
ful flaring of stamens in the center, 
Bride's Bouquet a large semi-double 
somewhat open, Shiro Chan with its 
cluster of white to pinkish white 
petaloids in the center and Conrad 
Hilton a rather full semi-double. 

From the reds and rose pinks there 
is a large number of quite satisfactory 
varieties. I might start with the beau- 
tiful semi-double Reg Ragland. Then 
add such good ones as Adolphe 
Audusson, Sunset Glory, Firefalls, 
Mathotiana Supreme, Aaron's Ruby 
and Clarise Carlton. The list wouldn't 
be complete without the relatively new 
Mark Alan with his unusual com- 
bination of broad and narrow petals 
and petaloids. The pinks would have 
to include the old standby full peony 
form Debutante, the spectacular Mrs. 
D. W. Davis and Drama Girl, 
Marjorie Magnificent for corsage 
use, Helen K. with her delicate pink 
shadings, and the large semi-double 
Coral Pink Lotus. I must mention 
my other partner, Rene Prince, at this 
point and mention his favorite, the 
petite formal Wilamina. She is a good 
grower and produces an abundance of 
bloom over a long season. 

Probably the most outstanding of 
the "sweet-pea" color pinks is Ballet 

Dancer, a full peony flower that 
blooms well and has such a delicate 
shading of pink to white. Another, 
Mary Wheeler, opens well for me, 
but doesn't size very well. We have 
had good luck with the old Horkan 
and the newer and similar Bradford's 
Apple Blossom. A semi-double that 
has done well and is one of Ted's 
favorites is Dr. Tinsley. 

I think it is with the variegated 
blooms that I find the most enjoyment. 
The list of varieties to enjoy is a long 
one. One of the most striking is the 
old-time Iwane. The blooms aren't 
large, but the contrast of red and white 
is so vivid. Similar in coloration is the 
newer Mercury Var. with much larger 
and more spectacular blooms. Both are 
rather open semi-doubles. Another 
favorite is Kyo Kanoko which re- 
minds me of a huge red and white 
carnation. An eye catcher is Maroon 
and Gold, with its combination of 
deep red petals and bright golden sta- 
mens — a small flower, but a profuse 
bloomer. Of course I must add 
Adolphe Audusson Var. and the 

beautiful A. A. Special, Gulio Nuccio 
Var. and Special, Richard Nixon, 
Sweeti-Vera and the similar Carter's 
Sunburst, the newer Kickoff, and the 

old beautifully moired and marbled 
Oniji. I could go on and on. 

I can't consider ending this article 
without mentioning the old and much 
abused Imperator. The loose peony 
red blooms it produces aren't spectac- 
ular in themselves. In fact when a 
single bloom is displayed it doesn't 
look at all impressive. But we have an 
Imperator plant in our patio that each 
year around Christmas time gives us 
our own living Christmas tree. It is 
a mass of red balls hung on the tips 
of the branches and really is quite a 

This is not a very complete list, it 
is only some of the varieties that I 
have enjoyed. What is appealing to 
me may leave another person cold. 

But that is the nice thing about ca- 
mellias. There is such a multitude of 
forms and colors that there surely is 
one to please every person. 

Photo by Mackintosh 
Camellia Mark Alan. (Ray Greer) 

Note pointed petals and tall "rabbit ears." 

FEBRUARY, 1966 - MARCH, 1966 

Photo by Mackintosh 

Azalea, Pink Pearl. 
From the garden of Harvey F. Short. 


Harbingers of Spring 

by Harvey F. Short 

AZALEAS, a splendid group of 
evergreen shrubs belonging to 
the Rhododendron family are 
truly unequalled in the many types 
offered to us. The range of colors, the 
styling and size of the blossoms, the 
great variation in foliage from very 
small to very large leaves, all con- 
tribute greatly to the beauty of azaleas 
as landscape material, whether used as 
pot plants, mass plantings, tree types, 
espaliers or hedges. The growth habits 
extend from low compact forms up to 
the vigorous open growth of large 
specimens. A large variety of the pop- 
ular members of the azalea family are 
now to be found in most nurseries. 

Belgian Hybrids 

This category offers an extended 
flowering season from October through 
April and some of the showiest large 
double or semi-double blooms, suitable 
for arrangements, in addition to scat- 
tered sprays of flowers during the year. 
Favorites are the gorgeous Albert and 
Elizabeth, whose white petals are 
edged with deep coral pink, and Paul 
Schame, a double salmon-pink and 
Professor Walters, a large single pink 
with dark blotches that make it look 
like a pelargonium; and Pink Pearl, 
with large flowers of delicate light 
pink coloring which often reblooms 
all year. 

Southern Indicas 

These varieties are also called Sun 
Azaleas because they have been selected 
for their vigor and sun tolerance, but 
their blooms still show off best in 
partial shade. Long popular in the 

deep south, they are the ones usually 
associated with the famous gardens of 
that area. The large single flowers of 
Fielder's White, the purple of Phoe- 
nicea and the brilliant red of Pride of 
Dorking are worthy choices in this 

Rutherfordiana Hybrids 

These types offer distinctive and at- 
tractive selections with excellent foli- 
age, vigorous growth and striking col- 
ors. Flowers of delicate orchid, white, 
pink and red to orange-red coloring 
are usually "hose-in-hose" or double 


The Kurume group came out of 
Japan in the early 1930's. The Cool- 
idge Rare Plant Gardens in Pasadena 
was one of three places in the United 
States selected to receive seeds of these 
plants. From the resulting seedlings 
came at least a hundred varieties differ- 
ing in color and size of flowers, that 
were later introduced to this area for 
the first time. Often these azaleas 
were a solid mass of bloom that gave 
the gardens a flashing array of color 
glory that probably has never been 
equalled in Southern California. It 
became customary for garden enthus- 
iasts to make pilgrimages to the Cool- 
idge Gardens each spring for the an- 
nual Azalea Festival. Often the num- 
ber of visitors in a week would be as 
high as 10,000. 

Many fine specimen Kurumes can 
still be found in the Pasadena area. 
Their Oriental styling, profusion of 
bloom (many scented delightfully) 

and growth characteristics, whether 
tuned for rock gardens or planted to 
reflect their beauty in trickling streams 
and pools, are well expressed in the 
popular Descanso Gardens at La Ca- 
nada. Some of these favorites still 
available are the pale pink Seraphim, 
Santor, Laughing Water, and Snow- 
bird. Kurumes are hardy, less subject 
to temperature changes. 

Satsuki or Macranthas 

These varieties are late-flowering 
and very worthy summer types. With 
this group one embraces high garden 
interest that rounds out almost a year 
of extended color sequences. 


Culture of azaleas is not too diffi- 
cult. They enjoy various soil mixtures 
leaning to the acid side. These may- 
be leafmold (redwood, pine and oak) 
and light loam, but my best success 
through the years has been with two- 
thirds peat moss or all peat moss, with 
special attention to good drainage. Peat 
should always be thoroughly moistened 
before using. 

Transplanting may take place any 
time except when the new leaves begin 
to show and until they mature. After 
that azaleas may be repotted even when 
in full bloom. In time, peat tends to 
sink a bit, so keep the base of the 
plant trunk a little high so that the 
original soil level will not be covered. 

Three to four feedings of cotton- 
seed meal or commercial camellia- 
azalea food from March to September 
serve well. Mix it into the top of the 
peat so it will not cake. One or two ap- 

plications of Stabilized Iron Chelates to 
counteract the action of salts and alka- 
linity on the general water supply of 
this area is a real necessity. 

Watering is most important if good 
drainage is assured. Keep the plants 
moist but not stagnant. Never let 
azaleas dry out especially when plant- 

Prune to shape after flowering is 
over and follow up if necessary until 
July when the new buds set. 

To control any pests, such as aphids 
and mites, give occasional light spray- 
ings of Malathion at regular intervals 
during the growing season. 

Gift plants of potted azaleas will 
do well if, as soon as convenient, they 

are transplanted to the garden or kept 
on in pots for patio display. If prop- 
erly cared for, they will probably 
bloom again the same year. They do 
not thrive in indoor dryness and heat. 
Keep moist and outdoors as much as 

There are enough azaleas, as well 
as camellias, suited to our climate to 
make the gardens of San Diego rival 
those of the South. Once established, 
azaleas are little work to maintain and 
how they do light up the shade por- 
tions of the garden when in bloom. 
Out of season they provide fine foliage 
shrubs for the landscape. Planting 
azaleas is a labor that satisfies, an in- 
vestment for years of beauty. 

Coolidge Gardens Azalea Display arranged by Harvey F. Short 


The Coolidge Rare Plant Gardens 
on Foothill Boulevard in East Pasa- 
dena were a favorite spot for a visit 
both by discriminating plant lovers, 
and by color photographers who 
swarmed there to photograph their 
colorful rarities. 

The Gardens were particularly noted 
for their large number of select new 
varieties of fine camellias. Their epi- 
phyllums and cascade chrysanthemums 

attracted hordes of visitors during the 
blooming season, since they had the 
finest and most beautiful varieties. 
However as land values mounted in 
this area, the land occupied by the 
nurseries became too high-priced to 
continue there. The epiphyllums and 
the azaleas were closed out in 1958, 
and the last of the three nurseries was 
closed in I960. 




Pesticides vary greatly in their degree 
of toxicity to mammals. A guide to rel- 
ative toxicity is the LD-50 factor. This 
indicates the amount of the particular 
pesticide by weight required to kill 
50% of the animals on which the ma- 
terial is tested (a gruesome thought!) 

By considering the LD-50 factors of 
pesticides we get a clue as to the degree 
of care we must exercise in handling 
the material. Any pesticide with an 
LD-50 factor of less than 20 is ex- 
tremely dangerous and must be han- 
dled with the greatest care. Such ma- 
terials are generally not available to the 
home gardener. On the other hand, pes- 
ticides with an LD-50 factor of over 
100 are relatively safe when used as 

Injury from pesticides may come 
about in three different ways. All pes- 
ticides are poisonous if taken orally in 
sufficient quantity. Other pesticides can 
build up in the system over a period of 
time through prolonged improper ex- 
posure. Since this is a gradual process, 
it is harder to detect. Still other pesti- 
cides may be absorbed through the skin. 
These should be handled with gloves 
and protective equipment. 

The following is a list of commer- 
cially available pesticides and their LD- 
50 factors. They are listed in the order 
of their toxicity: 



































Kingwood Center 

Mansfield, Ohio 

FEBRUARY, 1966- MARCH, 1966 



Keen Steals 

»•* ** 

Tlewcotnel Hooks at (^alilolma 

by Clifford H. Pope 

THE newcomer to southern Cali- 
fornia interested in gardening 
becomes acutely aware of certain 
things: decomposed granite, ice plants, 
gophers, sprinkler heads, piping, and, 
of course, irrigation. Each of these 
holds surprises. In many parts of our 
country the gardener may live fully 
and die happily with but the vaguest 
concept of these. Why, then, do they 
have such significance in southern 
California ? 

Let us take them up one by one. 
The newcomer discovers that he at 
once becomes a partisan: either he 
swears by pop-up sprinkler heads or 
roots for those that don't pop. To 
say that either will do, will not do. 
Those that don't pop are always lurk- 
ing there to trip you up, whereas the 
poppers won't trip you unless they 
become one-way actors that pop up 
but not down. When it comes to pip- 
ing, the problem waxes even more 
complex, but again he must take sides; 
he dare not pipe down if he wants 
friends. Galvanized piping is strong 
as well as puncture proof, but a de- 
posit does slowly accumulate inside. 
Plastic piping, on the other hand, is 
neither strong nor puncture proof, but 
it does not acquire a deposit. In spite 
of its lack of resistance to stab and cut 
of garden tools, gophers are not 
tempted by it, and a puncture or cut 
can be repaired with remarkable speed. 
So run the piping arguments in part. 
But certain personality traits enter into 
the picture, especially for the absent- 
minded gardener, as the following in- 
cident will show. 

One day when working on a flower 
bed I came across a particularly tough 
root but managed to cut it loose. When 
I picked the piece up I recognized it 
as a bit of the brown plastic hose pipe 
that I had carefully buried not so long 
before to conduct water to a more 
distant bed. A few days later my faith- 
ful high school assistant cut a section 
from the other end of this "root," ac- 
tually giving me a feeling of relief; 
"If I hadn't, he would have," I 
thought. Our combined score for three 
years: plastic pipe cut or pierced six 
times, two of the cuts in exactly the 
same place. 

After living for years near granite 
quarries in an eastern state, I had come 
to think of granite as the rock of ages, 
but in southern California this is a 
gross misconception; decomposed gran- 
ite looms large on the horizon literally 
as well as figuratively, this part of the 
state being mainly composed of granite 
in various stages of disintegration. De- 
composed granite is useful in many 
ways and even comes in a variety of 
colors. For example, an excellent 
driveway can be made of it. You 
merely have the delivery truck spread 
it; then you wet it down and drive 
your car back and forth over it. Soon 
you have a driveway much more at- 
tractive than a hardtop one and at a 
small part of the cost. It must be ad- 
mitted that decomposed-granite drive- 
ways are suitable only for level or 
nearly level places; it is readily eroded. 

Ice plant strikes the new arrival as 
a gardener's dream. Some of the many 
kinds bloom for months and have 

brilliant and profuse blossoms; all are 
tough, require little care, and spread 
like fire even in poor soil. Parts of any 
plant will grow into new ones if just 
casually put in the ground. But the 
more you see of it the more you realize 
that ice plant is the gardener's pitfall 
and in general should be confined to 
banks. There it serves the valuable 
purpose of halting erosion. For those 
with limited time, ice plant may be 
a blessing; any neighbor will pass a 
little over the fence. 

The ice-plant dream may quickly 
melt away, whereas the nightmares 
brought on by the gopher never end. 
If you are fussy about names and in- 
troductions, it should be presented in- 
formally as Botta's pocket gopher, 
formally as Thomomys bottae. Bio- 
logically speaking, gophers are some of 
God's most interesting creatures. Who 
would ever expect this little rodent 
to have outside, fur-lined pouches for 
carrying dirt, plus the ability to grow 
four feet of teeth a year! Each of its 
four diggers would increase a foot in 
length if not worn away by the con- 
tinual digging that is the gopher's 
necessity. These characteristics are soon 
submerged by the wrath that this mite 
of a creature can stir up in the human 
breast. The gopher himself is fully 
able to return this wrath in kind. A 
friend related how he ran one out of 
its hole by a stream of water. The 
drenched gopher became so irate that 
it stood erect, and, with bared teeth, 
dared my friend to engage in a fair 
fight. The fight, though not exactly 
fair, ended the way you have guessed: 

Cartoon by Justine Wishek 

Botta's Pocket Gopher in action. 

it was a flat failure for the poor gopher 
— my friend had a large shovel handy. 

Gophers revel in newly seeded 
lawns. The first day our new lawn 
netted in the exact center one gopher 
and its huge pile of dirt. The gophers 
do psychological damage to gardeners 
by dividing them into camps of those 
who use poisons of various kinds and 
those who use traps. Some even de- 
grade themselves to lure the gopher 
to his death with expensive perfume. 

The person who comes from a 
region of heavy rainfall, let us say the 
southern Appalachians, cannot believe 
his eyes when he sees water being 
sprayed over square miles of fields. 
Almost as great is the shock when he 
is told that under every fruit tree 
squirts a little sprinkler. But after a 
few months of getting used to artificial 

distribution of water, he begins to feel 
that maybe this is good; the water goes 
exactly when and where it is needed 
with a minimum of waste; and the 
withholding of water serves to control 
weeds. He may even go so far as to 
resent rain because it interferes with 
his watering schedule. Back there in 
the Appalachians, countless millions of 
gallons of water are wasted hourly as 
thousands of streams channel them 
down through the mountains and on 
to the ocean. Moreover, the constant 
rains enable weeds to get completely 
out of hand. 

The early Californian may have 
dreamt of gold, but his descendant to- 
day dreams of hoses absent-mindedly 
left running, and wakes in the middle 
of the night to realize with dismay that 
his dream is based on reality. 

Ornamental Horticulture 
Class Offered 

ANEW class in Ornamental Hor- 
ticulture is now beginning at 
Mesa College campus, 7250 Ar- 
tillery Drive. This part of a two-year 
curriculum is planned to qualify grad- 
uates for work in nurseries, parks and 
golf courses. Eventually there may be 
a group of well trained gardeners 

A course in Landscape Materials is 

offered under the Evening College pro- 
gram. This stresses the study and use 
of plants in Landscape Design, and 
the form, texture, structure and color 
relationship of plants. There will be 
field trips to parks and nurseries. 
Marshall Ploof is the instructor. New 
classes will start February 3. 

Tell your favorite gardener about 
this training now available to him. 


(continued from page 7 ) 

The cryptomeria in Japan is very 
versatile; it is used for house lumber 
and furniture and house ornaments 
which utilize its beautiful grain; and 
for wine-making tubs valued for the 
wood's aroma. Carved wooden bases 
for vases — the flower arranger's de- 
light, soy tubs (popular among gard- 
eners in America), all sorts of boxes 
for all sorts of uses, even "geta" the 
wooden sandal shaped somewhat like 
"zori" — all these are made from its 

There are so many things the Japan- 
ese make from plant materials. The 
most important plant in Japan, prob- 
ably, is bamboo. In the U. S. it is 
known as an exotic garden plant, but 
in Japan it is much more. It is famous 
for use in baskets, but is also widely 
employed in making furniture, toys, 
umbrellas, screens, lampshades, and 
fishing tools. 

The bamboo sheds its "skin" as it 
is growing out of the shoot; these are 
collected by children as a rule, and 
later sold to processors. After being 
shaved paper-thin and cleaned, these 
are used as meat wrappers and lunch 
bags. They are pasted on cloth, paper, 
and wood to be used for many pur- 
poses. They make paper strong and 
semi-waterproof. They are used for 
gift wrapping papers, candy boxes, 
women's accessories, and rope. It is 
sad to think of all these unique articles 
being replaced by plastic, aluminum, 
waxed paper, veneer — all considered as 
advances of science. 

Many of the wild plants I used to 
see when I was small are gradually 
passing from the peoples' lives as the 
villages grow into towns, and from 
towns to cities, to metropolises to meg- 
alopolises. Formerly, rice cakes were 
flavored with wild chrysanthemums, 
for instance, and wrapped in treated 
oak or cherry leaves; now they are 
flavored with artificial flavorings and 
wrapped in plastic "leaves" printed to 
resemble the natural ones. Swamps, 
where I used to go to pick pussywil- 
lows, cattails, and wild irises, are fast 
being changed into housing projects. 
It is the same everywhere — here or in 

Some may call it industrialization, 
some may call it progress. Call it what 
you will, but to me something of the 
zest, something of the loveliness, some- 
thing of the enchantment of life slips 
away with the passing of each of these 
associations with nature, and our lives, 
as a consequence, are left the poorer. 

FEBRUARY. 1966 -MARCH, 1966 



Rarest Plant Growing 
In. America Today 

by Chauncy I. Jerabek 



AMONG the trees at Quail 
Gardens, Encinitas, the one with 
the most interesting background 
is the Dawn Redwood, Metasequoia 
glyptostroboides (pronounced glip-toe- 
strow-boy-des). It became extinct in 
North America over twenty million 
years ago and paleobotanists consider 
it to be the rarest plant specimen 
growing in America today. 

From time to time, during the last 
hundred years, fossil specimens of this 
tree were collected at the John Day 
fossil beds in northeastern Oregon, in 
the lake beds in the vicinity of Spo- 
kane, Washington, near the junction 
of Highways 28 and 395; also it was 
found in various localities in Nevada 
and in the foothills of the Sierra 
Nevada mountains in northern Cali- 


All this time, this genus had only 
been found in fossil specimens. In 
1941, after studying fragments from 
Korea and Japan, a Japanese paleo- 
botanist, Shigen Miki, concluded that 
these specimens were not the same as 
the varieties of redwood found in 
northern California and southwestern 
Oregon. He also deduced that those 
fossil trees were non-existent in their 
living form. 

In 1944, Dr. Tsang Wang, a bot- 
anist of China's Forest Research Bu- 
reau, made a trip to the remote village 
of Mo-tao-chi, located in the Valley 
of the Tiger, Central China. In his 
wanderings he came upon a magni- 
ficent tree unlike anything he had ever 
seen before. He brought back samples 

of its cones and foliage to Nanking, 
and presented them to Dr. Wan Chun 
Cheng, Professor of Forestry at the 
National Central University, who also 
discussed them with Dr. Hsen Hsa Hu 
of Fan Memorial Institute of Biology, 
Peiping. Upon close examination, they 
found the foliage and cones were 
identical with the fossil specimens 
found in Korea and Japan, so it was 
named Metasequoia glyptostroboides, 
creating a new family, Metasequoiaceae. 
Dr. E. D. Merrill, former director 
of the Arnold Arboretum, became so 
interested in this great discovery that 
he sent a contribution to help finance 
an expedition to collect seeds. In the 
fall of 1947, Dr. Hu and his caravan 
journeyed to Central China, through 
the Red Basin of Szochuan and ad- 

jacent Hupeh, on their way to Mo- 
tao-chi, where they found not only 
scattered living trees but groups of 
them growing along the streams and 
rice paddies. 

From the seeds received by the 
Arnold Arboretum, three were sent to 
the late Col. Arthur Fischer, Director 
of the San Diego Natural History Mu- 
seum at that time. He brought them 
to the Balboa Park Nursery and asked 
me to sprout them. I had good luck 
with all three. 

When the seedlings were about a 
foot high, Col. Fischer planted one in 
his front garden on the corner of Ever- 
green and Kingsley in the Loma Portal 
area of San Diego. Another was es- 
tablished in the nursery grounds of 
Balboa Park. The third one was pre- 
sented to the late Major General Wil- 
liam T. Clement, Commandant of the 
U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot in 
San Diego. He had it planted in the 
rear garden of his residence on the 
base where it received special care. 
(See photograph.) It is now over forty 
feet high and still growing. 

This Dawn Redwood showed prom- 
ise of becoming such an outstanding 
tree that the chief gardener, Gerald 
Wellington, made some rooted cuttings 
of it during its 1953 deciduous period. 
Sergeant Paul Thomson, stationed on 
the base at this time, showed so much 
interest in this tree that he was given 
a rooted cutting. Having no home of 
his own, he took it to his father-in-law, 
Charles Benlehr, at 997 Eolus Street 
in Encinitas, where it was planted in 
a narrow strip between a rose garden 
and an avocado grove. It grew so 
rapidly that in a few years, it was too 
large for the small space it occupied, 
so it was donated to the Quail Gardens 
Foundation, Inc. In January, 1963, 
P. J. Miller, the head gardener and his 
crew, transplanted this valuable tree 
to the southeastern section of the Quail 
Gardens where it may now be seen 
near Amersfoot Drive. It will begin 
to leaf out about March. 

The cones and wood textures of the 
Redwood and the Metasequoia are sim- 
ilar. The chief difference is in the soft 
green foliage of the latter which, in 
autumn, turns a very lovely tone of 
apricot-gold with a slight flush of 
strawberry-pink, before it suddenly 
sheds its needles and becomes bare 
and dormant while our Pacific Coast 
Redwood remains evergreen. Its 
branches extend downward instead of 
upward as do the Dawn Redwood. 
Out of the dark ages, a living tree for 
today! Look for it when you visit 
Quail Gardens. 

Datvn Redivood 

Tree planted in 1951 at Marine Corps Recruit Depot. 
Since this picture of Lt. General William T. Clement, 
taken in 1953, it has become traditional for every Com- 
manding Officer to pose with the tree in order to gauge 
its rate of growth. 

FEBRUARY, 1966 -MARCH, 1966 




by Eleanor McCown 

THIS should be a banner year for 
wild flowers in all areas of South- 
ern California. In no area will 
they be more welcome and more con- 
spicuous than in the lower Colorado 
Desert east of the Imperial Valley. 
One of the newest roads to cross this 
area is the Ben Hulse Highway that 
travels east and north from Brawley to 
Blythe. Already popular with desert 
folk as a recreational and picnic area, 
it should be a lovely and interesting 
trip for those seeking wild flowers. 

About thirteen miles east of Brawley, 
the Ben Hulse Highway crosses the 
Highline Canal and ascends the beach 
line of the ancient lake that once cov- 
ered all of the valley. The beach line 
itself in this region is quite rocky and 
gravel quarries are busily carrying away 
large portions of it. Where the beach 
has not been disturbed, quite often bits 
of pottery and the charred remains of 
campfires can be found. These were 
left by an ancient Indian tribe that 
camped on the shores of the lake. The 
most noticeable plant life here are two 
shrubs, Ephedra and Creosote Bush. 
Ephedra or Desert Tea is a straggly, 
seemingly leafless shrub, light green in 
color. Male and female blossoms are 
borne on separate plants, the staminate 
being the most noticeable. These ap- 
pear as small catkin-like blooms with 
the stamens bringing out the only col- 
oring. The pistillate flowers appear as 
tiny, papery cones. This plant contains 
considerable tanin and is often brewed 
into tea. 

Just past the beach line, the road 
crosses the East Mesa. This is a sandy 
area with scattered dunes and occa- 
sional groves of Mesquite. The most 
conspicuous shrub in this area is the 
Creosote Bush, Larrea divaricata. Even 

Photo by Eleanor McCown 
Fairy Duster, Calliandra eriophylla. 

in dry years this shrub, with its tiny 
deep green leaves and blackish stems, 
gives this area a green appearance. 
With the abundant rains this winter, 
it will be exceptionally pretty with its 
tiny bright yellow blossoms and equal- 
ly attractive fuzzy white seed balls. 

The Sand Verbena, Abronia villosa, 
finds its home on the mesa and this 
spring should paint all the open spaces 
with its rosy-lavender flowers. Wher- 
ever the sand has piled into small and 
large dunes, the Dune Primrose will be 
growing. With its large white flowers 
and delicious scent, it should form 
large clumps this year. These plants 
when they die in the summer will form 
the skeletons that are sought for "bas- 
kets" and "bird cages." Less common 
but a companion plant to the primrose 
is the Desert Lily, Hesperocallis un- 
dulata. This lovely fragrant lily re- 
minds one of a small Easter Lily. The 
white flowers have a green band down 
the middle of the back of each petal. 
The bulbs of this lily are sometimes 
as deep as two feet in the sand. 

In the flat open areas many small 
white Forget-Me-Nots, tiny Lupines, 
small yellow Primroses, and other an- 
nuals can be found. 

After crossing the Coachella Canal, 
the road leaves the East Mesa and goes 
up and through the Algodones Sand 
Dunes. These conspicuous dunes, look- 
ing so white from a distance, have 
considerable plant life even in dry 
years. The traveler will most likely be 
distracted here from flora to fauna by 
the Dune Buggies that can be seen at 
almost any time going up, over, and 
around the dunes. 

The Dunes can claim some plants 
that are unique to the area. One of the 
loveliest is the Silver-Leaved Sunflower. 
This perennial should be very lovely 
this spring with its large silvery leaves 
and bright yellow flowers. Another 
plant that is most unusual is called 
Sand Food. This parasite, Ammobroma 
sonorae, has a gray disk-like flowering 
head containing tiny purple flowers. 
All that can be seen from the surface 
is this head. A long underground stem 
extends sometimes four feet to the host 
plant, usually the Buckwheat, Eriogo- 
num desert/cola, or the shrub Colde- 
nia. Indians of the gulf area found 
these stems a major source of food. 
Baked they are said to taste a little like 
a yam. An unusually large variety of 
Spanish Needle, Palafoxia linearis, 
with deep pink flowering heads and 
slender dark green leaves, is also 
unique to the dunes. 

On the east side of the dunes, the 
runoff water from the mountains is 

trapped in numerous basins. Because 
of this extra supply of water, this area 
has an almost tropical growth with 
Verbenas, Primroses and other an- 
nuals. Palo Verde trees are numerous 
in this area and they will be beautiful 
this spring when covered with their 
light yellow blossoms. 

Leaving the dunes behind, the road 
descends slightly to the little railroad 
town of Glamis. From here it crosses 
the S.P. railroad tracks and enters the 
territory of the Ironwood tree. With 
the Chocolate Mountains in the back- 
ground, the rocky terrain is corrugated 
with numerous washes. The Ironwood 
trees grow quite large here and when 
covered with purple blossoms in June 
are very striking. Occasional Ocotillos 

and Palo Verde trees can also be seen 
here. Cactus are not as plentiful as 
in many desert areas but three types 
are occasionally seen on the slopes of 
the Chocolate Mountains. Most at- 
tractive are the Barrel Cactus, whose 
spines are tipped with red, making a 
brilliant splash of color against the 
brown rocks even when not in bloom. 
The Beavertail passes unnoticed ex- 
cept when it is in bloom and then the 
large cerise flowers are eyecatchers. 
Cholla cactus, with its teddy-bear, 
shape, are scattered in the area. 

A shrub that is related to the beauti- 
ful Pink Powderpuff Calliandra of the 
tropics is found in large quantities 
along the banks of the washes and ra- 
vines. Only after a rainy season does 

Desert Lily, Hesperocallis undulata. 

Photo by Mackintosh 

FEBRUARY, 1966 -MARCH, 1966 


the passerby really see this shrub, Cal- 
liandra eriophylla, for with ample 
moisture, the shrub revives from a 
state of wilt and the tiny ferny foliage 
greens up and blossoms appear that 
give it the common name of Fairy 
Duster. The showy stamens make up 
the largest part of the flower, bursting 
out of the very small red corolla. 
These shrubs make splashes of pink 
that show up brilliantly against the 
greys and browns of the rocky back- 

Numerous annuals will be found 
growing deep in the washes under the 
Ironwood and Palo Verde trees. Most 
noticeable is the large purple Phacelia. 
Two members of the Cucumber family 
are to be found here. One is the pal- 
mate leaved Gourd often called Coy- 
ote Melon and a much smaller leaved 
species Brandegea with tiny white 
flowers and thin leaves. Numerous 
disk-like pustules cover the upper sur- 
faces of the leaves. Other shrubs in 
the washes are Desert Lavender, Hyp- 
tis emoryi, with grey leaves, small 
lavender flowers and a pleasant laven- 
der-plus-turpentine odor, Squaw 
Thorn, whose small red berries are 
cherished by the birds of the desert 
and Goat Nut, Simmondsia calif ornica, 
a leathery-leaved grey-green shrub with 
small oily nuts that are quite tasty 
when roasted. 

As the road winds through the 
Chocolate Mountains and down into 
the wide reaches of the Milipitas 
Wash, the traveler will find many de- 
lightful places to stop and hike the 
hillsides or stroll up a ravine. Some- 
times, rounding a curve in the ravine, 
the hiker is pleasantly surprised to 
find the whole hillside covered with 
tiny blue lupines or golden with dwarf 
California Poppies. One of the odd- 
est of wildflowers to be found on the 
rocky hillsides is the Ghost Flower 
Mohavea confertiflora. The very pale 
cream flowers with a ragged edge and 
tiny lines of purple dots is related to 
the Mimulus. 

Only on foot will the traveler see 
one of the desert's miracles. These 
are the "Belly Flowers" so called by 
desert folk because to really see them 
you must get close to the ground. 
Some are no more than a single flower 
and stem. Many different species can 
be found among these tiny flowers. 

When planning a trip to this area 
be sure to fill the picnic basket and 
the thermos, take along a canteen of 
water and a "Guide to Desert Wild- 
flowers" and prepare to have a most 
wonderful trip. 




^A l/Judh, ^Adter 

LOOKING for brilliant early 
spring color in a small, rarely 
found shrub, one turns to Aster 
fruticosus which reaches its height 
some time in April this far south. 
This plant has not been seen too 
often in these regions since the days 
of Kate Sessions who always had 
a sense of direction toward quality 
and service in plants, together with 
the initiative in doing something about 
availability. Frequently we talk about 
the traveler, in particular navy people 
who come home with a handful of 
seed from some far-away plant that 
has appealed to them in some way or 
other. The recipient nurseryman will 
have a new and possibly colorful 
species . . . for awhile. 

The last time the species above was 
to be found here, the Washington 
Street Nursery people dug up seedlings 
from a planting high on a bank at 
Sharp Memorial Hospital. This should 
indicate the ease with which it might 
be made available to the planting 
public and should constitute a power- 
ful homily in the matter of publicity. 
Shamefully, the last plants at the above 
nursery were "dumped" because of no 
calls . . . one could do a job of selling 
of course. This all highlights the need 
for promotion and that is what this 
nod and good opinion attempts. 

'' ■:•"■■' 



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§§§P^V "*$fw<« 




: :■'§ A 

• SI tJP- 

, '* ■ ■■ ■.., ■■■ . ■: .-. ..■-.■■■■ . ■ ■.-■ ■ 

Alfred Hottes 
Bush Aster 
Aster jruticosus 

The plant is a rounding, woody 
shrub 2-3' in height, made up as a 
light, branchy structure, but with a 
certain compact aspect overall when 
growing dry and in the sun which is 
a necessity. It can very well be grown 
with our typical native flora and brings 
to it the unusual and dependable col- 
oring in a kind of lavender-purple. 
Look for it at the round brick building 
of the Sentinel Savings and Loan Asso- 
ciation immediately east of Mission 
Valley Center. Several eighteen inch 
specimens there will appear in low 
mounds in a base-setting of white and 
lavender alyssum . . . color combina- 
tion that wheels and swirls in season 
so that few who have taken the trouble 
to look will forget. 

* Fellow alsa, author of Ornamental 
Plants for Subtropical Regions. 


by Alice M. Greer 

Holiday Flower Arrangements; Em- 
ma Hopkinson Cyphers. Hearth- 
side Press, 1965, 129 pages; $4.95. 
IN THIS revised version of Holi- 
day Flower Arrangements, Emma 
Cyphers has given us a work full 
of suggestions to help us carry on our 
beautiful and imperishable heritage of 
decoration with plant material. The 
author presents ideas for Thanksgiv- 
ing, Christmas, Easter, Hallowe'en, 
weddings, birthdays, etc. This volume 
is filled with 105 halftone illustrations 
and two large color plates to guide 
one in making arrangements for big 
and little events throughout the year. 
The intent of this book is to serve 
as encouragement to homemakers un- 

schooled in flower show exhibiting. 
The objective in the home is quite 
different from that at a public flower 
show where the arrangement functions 
individually as an existing subject com- 
posed within a limited and defined 
space. In the home the flower arrange- 
ment is but a part of the pattern for 
producing a warm, cheerful and 
friendly atmosphere. 

"Flower arrangements satisfy a deep 
need for self-expression, for nothing 
else so requires the hands, eyes and 
mind and heart to work in unison. 
Beautiful arrangements that express 
the thought and personality of the 
maker always catch the eye." Cyphers 
dispels all doubts as to your ability to 

combine flowers into decorative de- 
signs. She focuses attention on po- 
tentialities and selects illustrations with 
an eye to basic suggestions that will 
kindle a spark of imagination that will 
in turn set your thinking afire to pro- 
duce your own designs. She empha- 
sizes the theory of unity and harmony; 
the suitability of the component parts 
of decoration and location of the com- 
pleted design to achieve together a 
harmonious unity of oneness. 

In the make-up of this volume often 
the plates are many pages removed 
from the related texts, so the reader 
may lose interest while searching. Nev- 
ertheless this book is recommended to 
add to your library or to use as a gift. 

Guide to the Plants of the Ever- 
glades National Park : Tropic 
Publishing Co., Box 613, Coral 
Gables, Florida. 1965; paper 
bound; $2.00. 

Alex Hawkes, author of Orchids, 
Their Botany and Culture — (see Cali- 
fornia Garden, June- July 1961 for 
review) — started working with and 
writing about orchids when he was a 
boy of eleven living in Florida. Since 
then his travels and studies have car- 

ried him to the remote corners of the 

Everglades National Park — at the 
southern tip of the Florida peninsula, 
contains 23 square miles of land and 
water and forms one of the most un- 
usual wilderness areas in the United 
States. The plants of this area are 
the subject of this publication. 

Although it is written primarily for 
the use of visitors to the Park and for 
the identification and appreciation of 

the indigenous plants, it is a splendid 
source of reference for any horticul- 
turist or nature lover. Just reading the 
guidebook fills one with the desire to 
explore not only the Everglades of 
Florida, but other far-flung areas, and 
perhaps to study with greater detail 
the plant life at one's elbow. Hawkes 
writes with verve and enthusiasm that 
is contagious. The colored plates are 
superb; the text, short, interesting and 

Content with what thou seest 

-by M. A. Lippitt- 

MANY will welcome back our 
popular contributor, Marion 
Almy Lippitt. In her philo- 
sophical, nature-appreciative style, she 
addresses timely vignettes to the in- 
imitable David Grayson in answer to 
his The Friendly Road. From time to 
time we will share these vignettes with 

* * * 

For several weeks, Mr. Grayson, I 
had been experiencing what the old 
Saints called "a period of dryness." 

Had my observations come to an end ? 
Then in rereading your book "The 
Friendly Road," I came upon the para- 
graph that picked me up and stood 
me on my feet. You said; 

I am firmly convinced that the prime 
quality to be cultivated by the pilgrim 
is humility of spirit; he must be willing 
to accept Adventure in whatever garb 
she chooses to present herself. He 
must be able to see the shining form of 
the unusual through the dull garments 
of the normal. 

After that I was no longer "dry 

bones." Inspiration flowed again. 

The air was warm this morning, Mr. 
Grayson, but the wind came in cool 
gusts. I watched the different reactions 
registered by each separate tree. 

The pine tree rocks imperceptibly 
while every needle quivers in the wind. 
It seems to say, "Be calm, be sensitive 
to what life brings." The olive trees 
look distraught and temperamental. 
They are emotionally unstable. The 
eucalyptus branches sway rhythmically 
on the tiptoes of their long gray trunks, 
like ballerinas in their dance. 

FEBRUARY, 1966 - MARCH. 1966 


Calendar of Care 

o\j ob Oaben 

SPRING Is Here! That annual 
proclamation stirs the blood of the 
gardener just as it awakens the sap 
in trees and flowers. The happy debate 
as to just when Spring does arrive in 
Southern California (with a vote from 
this source that we enjoy Spring the 
year 'round) becomes moot at this 
point because all outdoors is broadcast- 
ing to all the senses from the final 
authority, Mother Nature, that truly 
Spring Is Here ! 

Our region's unique ability to dupli- 
cate and improve on gardens from all 
areas of the world is most apparent at 
this season. Our Japanese gardens are 
at their best with bloom from azaleas, 
flowering fruits, camellias and dog- 
wood; conifers are fresh with new 
growth, and buds are breaking on 
deciduous trees; and blended in the 
scene are overtones of foliage and 
berry colors from nandina, mahonia, 
cotoneaster and the like. Our New 
England gardens are coming out of 
the winter doldrums with early bulbs 
and perennials joining the winter 
annuals and flowering trees. Rock 
gardens and alpine plantings are bright 
with bloom and new growth, whether 
from succulents, bulbs or flowering 
miniatures. Spanish and Early Cali- 
fornia gardens are showing off bloom 
of mesembryanthemums, birds of para- 
dise, succulents, bougainvillea and 
acacias, blended with the last of the 
winter berries. 

Desert gardens are in bloom with 
native flowers, ocotillo, aloes and allied 
succulents, yuccas, Texas sage and some 
of the cacti. Tropical gardens are com- 
ing out with color masses and accents 

from birds of paradise, flame vine, 
hibiscus, bougainvillea, lantana, acacias, 
cassias, orchid trees, flowering euca- 
lyptus, flowering tea trees, pink Indian 
hawthorn, cymbidums, jasmines and 
the like. Woodsy settings are alive 
with new growth on pines and ferns, 
and color from coral bells, callas, 
azaleas, naturalized bulbs, and trailing 
vines. On every hand are glimpses of 
springtime from all parts of the world, 
for us to enjoy in Southern California. 

Experienced gardeners are making 
their last plantings of stock, snaps, 
Iceland poppies, cinerarias, calendulas, 
pansies, violas, larkspur and related 
cool-weather annuals. And it's the 
last chance to plant small columbine, 
delphinium, Shasta daisies and similar 
perennials for good results next sum- 
mer and fall. Later on quart- and 
gallon-size plants will be necessary for 
results this year. Incidentally, garden- 
ers are successfully planting tulips, daf- 
fodils, narcissus, hyacinths and other 
"fall" bulbs as late as the first of 
March in recent years, in case you 
haven't gotten around to it. 

Annuals for spring and summer 
color appear on bedding plant tables 
at the nurseries toward the end of this 
period. Zinnias, marigolds, the relia- 
ble petunias in many new varieties, 
asters, dwarf dahlias, cosmos and many 
others will be available. Dahlia tubers 
and canna roots (try the new Pfitzer 
dwarfs), tuberoses for fragrance, be- 
gonia tubers and gloxinia seedlings — 
all tempt the gardener who can see into 
the months ahead. 

The vegetable gardener will find to- 
matoes in several varieties, bell peppers 

and hot chilies, lettuce and celery — and 
everbearing strawberries for gardeners 
who let packaged strawberry divisions 
slip by earlier in the year. 

Planting of bare-root fruit trees and 
roses often is successful up through 
the middle of March, weather permit- 
ting, now that the growers are refrig- 
erating dormant stock and shipping 
throughout the season. A few pre- 
cautions are always in order: — keeping 
the roots moist at all times, watering in 
with one of the vitamin-hormone solu- 
tions, frequent waterings until the 
plants are well established, and avoid- 
ing the use of fresh steer manure in 
planting. If you don't have fixed no- 
tions on the subject, ask the nursery- 
man to prune back your fruit trees for 
planting, and don't go into shock when 
he cuts two-thirds of the wood away. 

Pruning and dormant spraying of 
deciduous fruit trees, berry vines and 
roses must be done now if you missed 
it in January. Remember that the 
method of pruning differs with the 
variety — best refer to a pruning man- 
ual. Your nurseryman can help you 
on the spray to use, including such 
advices as avoiding lime-sulphur on 
apricots, and giving peaches a second 
spraying just as the buds break. Give 
the trees and vines a mulch and light 
feeding after pruning, and a heavy 
fertilization after bloom and fruit is set. 

For the first time in almost a decade 
the rains earlier this winter have ac- 
complished the thorough leaching of 
Southern California soils. Excavations 
for swimming pools and building lots 
indicate a minimum of at least three 
to four feet of penetration from the 

rains, with most areas double that, 
which is plenty for good leaching ac- 
tion. We can expect this subsurface 
moisture to remain available to deep- 
rooted plants well into the dry season, 
and plants with less root system will 
need infrequent watering until then. 
But a special word of caution on new 
plantings: bare-root stock needs free 
moisture around the roots. Container- 
grown plants will drink up the mois- 
ture in the root ball that was in the 
container before planting, so follow 
a faithful program of frequent water- 
ing even though the soil near the root 
zone may indicate plenty of moisture. 

A great deal of damage was done to 
many hillside and low-lying home sites 
as a result of the heavy rains, leaving 
visible evidence of what and how much 
needs to be done for drainage and 
erosion control. Most of the damage 
can readily be repaired and future 
damage prevented by the home gard- 
ener himself. And many of us will 
properly repair the planting damage, 
but forego major preventive measures 
with the philosophic attitude that once 
in several decades is too infrequent to 
cause us to panic. Wise home-owners 
will look at the results of the rains and 
try to picture the effects of double or 
more rain — as can be expected at least 
once in each of our lifetimes — and act 

General garden clean-up isn't glam- 
orous but certainly is necessary, and 
this is the best time to get it out of 
the way. Possibly the greatest benefit 
is realized in eliminating the harboring 
places for insects, diseases, fungi, snails 
and slugs. The annual clean-up should 
include those odds and ends of prun- 
ing and cutting back, renewal of 
mulches where needed, massive treat- 
ment for ants and slugs and snails. 
Rip out that experimental shrub that's 
never done well and plant a replace- 
ment. Remove weeds and trash both 
for neatness and to ease maintenance 
through the coming year, filling in 
holes and cutting drain channels as 
needed, and so forth. This is also the 
logical point at which to rejuvenate 
annual and perennial flower beds with 
quantities of digested sewage sludge, 
steer, soil conditioner, shredded fir- 
bark, bonemeal and fertilizer. 

California native plants (and others 
native to areas of similar climates) are 
best set out during the rainy season. 
Frequent irrigation necessary to estab- 
lish these plants is often fatal during 
the warm, dry season, but natives are 
accustomed to our winter rains and 
take hold quickly and reliably if 
planted now. This is also a good time 
to set out citrus and other sub-tropical 

fruit trees and ornamentals in that the 
sun is getting warmer and by the time 
they've recovered from transplant shock 
the full benefit of the spring surge of 
growth will be realized. 

Also, looking to the future, this is 
the logical time to plant ground covers 
on any banks or slopes that are errod- 
ing badly this rainy season — most cov- 
ers require a full season to fill in to 
prevent erosion next year. 

Tropicals and subtropicals often 
show their resentment at our cold 
winter nights at this time by yellowing 
and dropping leaves, shy bloom and 
generally discouraged appearances. 
These symptoms can largely be avoided 
by following a few simple rules. The 
basic problem is soil temperature rather 
than the cold air — tropicals just aren't 

adapted to cold soil and the result is 
that they fall prey to root fungi that 
work in cold, moist soils, and the re- 
maining roots are functioning at a frac- 
tion of their normal efficiency. To help 
the situation: — Keep sun-loving trop- 
icals such as citrus, bougainvillea and 
hibiscus definitely on the dry side 
through the winter months (in normal 
years relying only on winter rains for 
irrigation). The principle is that soil 
on the dry side will be as much as 20 
to 25 degrees warmer than moist soil. 
Remove all mulches at the base of these 
plants, allowing the soil to soak up as 
much warmth as possible from the sun. 
And over-feed with bloodmeal or 
chemical fertilizers during the cold 
soil periods in order to help the season- 
ally inefficient root system do its job. 






P. O. BOX 1453 

at, eU<f<G4ti 
aubfGAdeH unlike temp,tyeleqG*te>„ 

Wiih'HAZARQ BLOC • -*2-"~* 
DECOR ROC' -. ■ 



S Rd» & Highway ,395 

297*4141 * 


FEBRUARY, 1066 - MARCH. 1966 



by Mrs. Cleoves Hardin 

President, San Diego Bromeliad 

AECHMEA pronounced eek-mea 
is the largest genus of the sub- 
family Bromelioideae of the 
Bromeliaceae. In Aechmea, we find 
the greatest range of type and species 
of any genera in this group. They will 
be found growing on the ground, on 
rocks and in trees. Many species of 
the Aechmeas make the best plants for 
growing in the house or on the patio. 
If one has a shade house or a green- 
house, no other plant can be more 

Aechmeas can be found growing in 
full sunlight as well as the deepest 
shade. They run from xerophytes to 
epiphytes and some can be xerophytic 
epipytes. Many of the hybrid ones of 
today are terrestrial. 

Aechmeas are probably the most 
popular genera of the Bromeliads for 
the beginners. They have been in 
cultivation for a very long time and 
are the best known in the nurseries 
and at the florists. Most all of the 
species produce attractive flower fol- 
lowed by baccate colorful berries which 
last for a considerable time. The Aech- 
mea really gives two fold for its price 
in so far as the length of time from 
the start of the flower forming to the 
drying up of the fruit may be an 
elapse of three to four months. 

Aechmeas most popular in Southern 
California for planting out of doors 
number a dozen or more. If one is a 
succulent gardener and wants some- 
thing in the Bromeliads to plant in the 
Agave or Aloe garden, there are sev- 

eral large-growing spiny leaved ones 
to consider. 

A. distkhantha par. distichantha is a 
large plant up to three feet across with 
growing habits very much like an 
agave. The stiff gray-green leaves 
taper to a sharp point with sharp re- 
curved spines. The flower head is open 
with purplish blue flowers standing tall 
above the plant. The flowers are long 
lasting and eventually set berries or 
fruit. A. angustifolia is a sturdy semi- 
tubular plant from the Colombia, Peru 
and Brazil area. It grows to 18 inches 
or taller and produces a tall erect 
flower spike with red bracts and yellow 
flowers, followed by a dense cluster of 
white berries that lasts for months and 
eventually turning blue before drying 
up. The plant is an attractive grey 
green with teethed margined leaves. 

For an entirely different look, try 
A. Mexicana. The origin gives it its 
name. A. Mexicana is a large rosette 
of broad leather-like leaves green but 
turning a beautiful rosy red in the 
sun. It has a large flower spike with 
small lilac to red petaled flowers grow- 
ing in a large panicle later setting on 
a huge head of white berries. 

Perhaps you have an area where you 
would like to hang a mounted plant. 
A. recurvata par. benrathii is a small 
type. When the plant matures it takes 
on an unusual shape and color. The 
center is red when it is coming into 
flower and the rose colored flowers 
show up beautifully. This plant can 
be placed in a sunny spot and it thrives 


Write for Price List — We ship anywhere 

HARDIN'S 9209 Harness Road. Spring Valley 

469-3038 Off 1600 Sweetwater Rd. Closed Thursday 


SINCE 1913 


Suite 2100, United States National Bank Bldg. 
Centre City, San Diego 1, Calif. 233-6557 

with a light watering when the weather 
is hot. 

Another Aechmea that can be 
mounted is A. orlandiana. It is a 
beautiful shaped plant with vivid 
markings. If grown in bright light, 
the wavy bands are almost black, some- 
times so close together that it gives the 
appearance of a black ceramic vase. In 
shade, the bands are more narrow 
sometimes showing maroon splashes or 
cream colored dashes on a light green 
background. If you want a different 
look just move it around. The flower 
head is very compact with scarlet bracts 
and yellow flower petals. 

If one is interested in a variegated 
leaf, particularly in a large plant A. 
caudata variegata is a show piece. The 
plant grows about five feet tall, vase- 
shaped and in the sun stripes in cream 
and pink may be seen on a medium 
green background. The flower stem 
stands tall above the leaves and is yel- 
low with red bracts. A. fasciata par. 
purpurea is another variegated one. It 
is green with overtones of purple 
striped with white when grown in 
bright light. It is smaller, more vase- 
shaped than A. fasciata but has the 
spectacular flower head of A. fasciata. 

Finally in the shade varieties of 
Aechmea, one sees many lovely shades 
of copper, maroon, wine, rose and 
mahogany combined with green to pro- 
duce plants that look as if they have 
been hand polished. A beautiful black 
wine all over plant is A. Hummel's 
EBONY GLOW. Words cannot de- 
scribe the color of this long-leaved 
beauty. An unusual one A. Weilbachii 
par. Leodiensis that is almost an 
orange-copper when grown in dark 
shade. The flower stem is tall above 
the plant, the branching inflorescence 
is a cluster of red-berry-like fruit tip- 
ped with the lavender of the flower 
petal. For a lovely rosette plant, A. 
Minitata par. discolor, powdery rose 
wine underneath the leaf and a shiny 
apple green on top is hard to beat. The 
flower stem is erect with red berries 
tipped with blue petals. This one can 
stand more cold than most. 

The list can go on and on, but see- 
ing is believing. One would have to 
be an artist of words to do justice to 
this beautiful family. 

Since all of these are the "tank" 
type remember to supply your plants 
with plenty of good water, fertilize oc- 
casionally and keep the drainage good. 
Most of these plants offset well and 
will fill a pot in just a few years. It is 
not necessary to increase the pot size 
each year, but be sure the potting med- 
ium has not broken down to impede 


by John G. Farleigh 

San Diego Rose Society 

THE local gardeners are jubilant 
over the abundant winter rains. 
Besides leaching out the salts 
which have been building up over the 
past few dry years, the entire garden 
has received a deep-down soaking 
which should carry us into the spring 
crop of bloom. Even the rose bushes 
which have been all but abandoned 
by their owners are making a strong 
come-back and will deliver a bumper 
crop of bloom in spite of long neglect. 

Nearly every block has a few strug- 
gling roses that appear to have been 
planted and forgotten; that are over- 
grown with weeds and grass and have 
never known a pruning shears. To 
the owners of these gardens, who have 
written off their roses as being too 
difficult, perplexing or not worth the 
effort, we would plead another chance 
for both the rose and the gardener. 

To be perfectly candid, a rose does 
require regular care. When properly 
selected, planted and cared for, they 
will reward you with bloom most of 
the year. So, for the sake of discussion, 
let's assume that we have attracted 
some disheartened rose fanciers. 

Let's get that rose bed back into 
shape by sprucing things up. Clean 
out the grass and weeds from around 
the plants and create a basin for water- 
ing. And while you are about it, get 
the pruning shears and cut out all the 
dead canes and twiggy growth. With 
this hard work done, let's go back and 
review some of the fundamentals. 

More roses fail through lack of 
water than any other single cause. A 
fast splashing in their general vicinity 
just won't satisfy them. They need a 
slow soaking about once a week dur- 
ing the growing season. 

Of course, all growing plants need 
food. A good bloom producer de- 
serves to be fed at least every six 
weeks. There are many brands of rose 
food available at the local nursery. A 
liquid fish-base fertilizer has been 
recommended by San Diego Rosarians. 
Whatever you feed, follow the direc- 
tions on the label. 

I can guess the next question. When 
do we get to the mildew? Well 
friends, you've got me there. Mildew, 

like the common cold, has never been 
completely conquered — but don't des- 
pair, we have learned to control it by 
spraying regularly. Acti-Dione PAl has 
been very effective in our garden. You 
can find this and quite an array of 
preparations for every mite, fungus 
and insect known to favor roses at 
your local nursery. If you do not wish 
to invest in sprays and spray equip- 
ment there are some "home remedies" 
that work well for some rosarians. 
Mildew and aphids can be controlled 
if the plants are washed off each morn- 

ing with a strong spray of fresh water, 
especially the under sides of the leaves. 
Soap suds also has some followers who 
swear by its effectiveness. If you have 
but a few roses these remedies may 
serve the purpose. 

If after this year's good care pro- 
gram, your roses still haven't bloomed 
— you are still plagued with bugs and 
mildew — throw them out! You would- 
n't put up with a troublesome car or 
appliance, would you? Some roses just 
won't grow well in your area — a few 
with top national ratings are failures 
in San Diego. Find out what varieties 
do well in this region from the local 
Rose Society; some are mildew and 
disease resistant, others have the frag- 
rance or robust growth habits you 

With all the old reliables and new 
exciting varieties being introduced each 
year there's a rose that is "just right" 
for that favorite spot in your garden. 



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FEBRUARY. 1966 - MARCH, 1966 

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by Byron H. Geer 

San Diego County Orchid Society 

THE Cymbidium season is in full 
swing, and all you wise people 
who gave them the care that 
they wanted last summer are enjoying 
the blooms now. I've said before that 
what you do to your plants during the 
spring and summer months has every- 
thing to do with whether or not you 
have blossom in mid-winter. A critical 
look at your plants as they are at pres- 
ent and, in retrospect, your cultural 
practices for the past season, will bear 
me out. Give yourself a pat on the 
back if the majority of your plants are 
showing long, loaded spikes. And have 
someone else give you a good kick if 
they aren't. 

For the next few months be sure 
that they have an abundant supply of 
food and water. Keep up the high 
phosphorus if they are in bloom or 
spike, switch back to high nitrogen if 
they are not. Watch the watering with 
the recent and anticipated rains in 
mind. They want to be moist at all 

Walter Andersen 


Nursery Stock and Garden Supplies 
for Beautiful Gardens 

We Specialize in Indoor Plants 

3860 Rosecrans San Diego 10 

Phone 296-6251 

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times, but Cymbidiums react even as 
you and I at the prospect of continually 
cold, wet feet. And regardless of how 
much water you may think is desirable, 
always do your watering early enough 
in the day so that the foliage is com- 
pletely dry by nightfall. If you don't, 
you stand a good chance of ending up 
with damped-off growths and spikes. 

Most of the insect pests are fairly 
quiet this time of year, but keep a wary 
eye out for Aphids which may appear 
overnight on your prized bloom spikes. 
If they do show up, use a Malathion 
in powder (dry) form to control them. 
The liquid sprays are fine, and give 
good control, but they may cause ir- 
regular spotting in the flowers. Best to 
play it safe and stick to the powders. 
Immediately after blooming is the 
preferred time to repot Cymbidiums, 
and the earlier the better. If the bulbs 
are out to the edge of the container 
or the compost is broken down badly, 
the plant should be put into new ma- 
terial. By repotting early you give the 
new growths the benefit of fresh com- 
post plus adequate growing room. 
Your plant will be well-rooted with 
fat, healthy bulbs by the end of sum- 
mer, which means good bloom for next 
year. Potting compost should be fir 
bark and redwood chips or shavings 
in about fifty-fifty proportions. A good 
nursery has the materials you need, or, 
if you don't want to tackle the job 
yourself, will retub for you at a nom- 
inal fee. 

The big news in Orchids for March 
and April is of the annual San Diego 
County Orchid Society Show to be held 
in the Conference Building, Balboa 
Park, and the Fifth World Orchid 
Conference convening in the Long 
Beach Arena. March 25 to 27, our 
own local people display their best for 
the twentieth consecutive year. If you 
love Orchids, don't miss it. And if 
you would like to see Orchids from all 
over the world make a calendar note 
to get to Long Beach between April 
14-17. This is an international show, 
and will be a once-in-a-lifetime oppor- 
tunity to see the rarest and most exotic 
of the Orchids in cultivation today. See 
page 4 of this issue. 



by Larry Sisk 

San Diego County Dahlia Society 

f~W~ * HIS is a busy and interesting 
time for the dahlia hobbyist. 
-*- First, it's catalog time. A postal 
card to each of the dahlia specialists 
on the hobbyist's list or advertising 
in the garden magazines will bring 
the current listings and descriptions. 
Whether the gardener plans to pur- 
chase by mail or not, catalogs are es- 
sential to know what varieties are 
current, and at what prices. 

Standard seed catalogs usually have 
a section devoted to dahlia roots, and 
although those offered usually are the 
older varieties they are reliable, and 
reasonably priced. By the first of 
March or so the nurseries also will be 
offering roots of standard varieties. 

It also is swap time at the dahlia 
society, and in addition to providing 
an opportunity for obtaining choice 
varieties, these events give the average 
gardener a chance to learn what varie- 
ties do well in the area and to gather 
helpful culture information. 

In planning to grow dahlias there 
are three methods of propagation: 
slips or cuttings, seed, and tubers 

The cheapest way to grow dahlias 
is from cuttings, and now is the time. 
Tubers from which cuttings are to be 
taken should be taken out of storage 
immediately — or obtained from a sup- 
plier or from friends. 

Moisture and warmth will start 
the sprouting process. A satisfactory 
method is to place the roots on a bed 
of damp sand, in a flat or box. Vermi- 
culite or peat moss may be used, but 
they retain moisture and may be in- 
clined to stay too wet. The bed should 
be kept moist, not wet. 

The crown or end of the root where 
the sprout will appear should not be 
covered; again because of danger of 
too much moisture. Clumps that were 
not divided in the fall may be partly 
buried, with the crowns left free. 

The flat or container should be 
placed where as much even warmth 
as possible can be maintained. A dark 
corner or area remote from direct light 
is preferred. A temperature of from 
55 to 75 degrees will start the sprouts 

When the sprouts begin to leaf out 
move the flat to a warm, bright loca- 
tion. Keeping the flat in the dark 
makes the cuttings too leggy. 

When the litle plant is two to four 
inches high it is ready. Use a sharp 
knife or razor blade, cutting between 
the bottom node and the tuber. Trim 
the cutting to leave only the top two 
or four leaves, and if the stem below 
the bottom node is long, make a square 
cut about an eighth of an inch below 
the node. (After each cutting, two 
new sprouts will appear, and may be 
slipped; then four, then eight, etc.) 

Now the cutting is ready for in- 
serting in clean wet sand, burying 
the bottom node about an inch. Most 
growers use a chemical rooting pow- 
der, dipping in the node before plac- 
ing in the sand. Identify varieties 
with plant labels stuck in the sand as 
the cuttings are placed. When all cut- 
tings are in the sand, sprinkle lightly 
to settle the node firmly. Keep the 
sand moist, but not wet, and keep the 
cuttings in a warm, light location. 
Temperature of 55 to 75 is best. 

In four to six weeks the cuttings 
will show growth and will have de- 
veloped a root system so they may be 
transferred to four-inch pots filled with 
loamy soil. In another two to four 
weeks they will be ready for planting 
when desired. The plants need the 
same kind of care given other potted 

Dahlia seed may be planted from 
March 1 on. As dahlias do not repro- 
duce their kind from seed, each plant 
grown from seed will be a new variety. 
The seed may be obtained from spe- 
cialists or hobby growers; those avail- 
able in seed racks at the store are bed- 
ding plants and are not recommended 
for any use other than for borders 
and beds. 

Use the same system for dahlia seed 
as for others: Plant in flats of sand, 
vermiculite, or other planting medium, 
firmed and wet thoroughly; place the 
seed carefully about two to three inches 
apart, and cover with about a quarter 
inch of the planting medium. Spray 
lightly to complete the moistening job. 
Place dark paper over the flat, and if 

possible cover the paper with glass. 
After two or three days remove the 
glass and paper. 

When the seedlings develop two to 
four leaves, lift easily and plant in 
four-inch pots. After two to six weeks 
they will be ready to plant out. 

Dahlia tubers may be planted satis- 
factorily from March 15 on, but they 
do better if planted after the soil be- 
gins to warm from mid-April to mid- 

For showing at the county fair, 
dahlia tubers should be planted by 
mid-March; seedlings and plants from 
cuttings may be planted two to four 
weeks later and they will bloom about 
the same time. 


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FEBRUARY, 1966 - MARCH, 1966 



by James E. Watkins 

President, San Diego-Imperial 
Counties Iris Society 

BLOOM season is now only a 
matter of short months away, so 
now is the time to give your 
irises some last special attention to in- 
sure their best behavior when it's time 
to put forth those bloom stalks. It 
need not be a great deal of work for 
you if you've kept their beds free of 
weeds, as it's the iris you want to help 
and not the weed next door. 

Early in February you should 
fertilize with a low-nitrogen complete 
fertilizer, something like a 5-10-10 
formula. Some growers prefer Jan- 
uary feeding, but it's not too late if 

you proceed early in the month. You 
can broadcast the fertilizer, cultivate 
between the clumps or rows, then 
water in well. With it you can incor- 
porate trace elements to good advan- 
tage — not over a teaspoonful to a 
clump — and irises respond to this like 
many other plants in an area where 
the iron and zinc are often depleted. 
Now is the growing time and the 
plants need plenty of moisture. For- 
get those old-time axioms about water- 
ing irises sparingly. They enjoy plenti- 
ful moisture if your drainage is ade- 
quate. The best way to water is by 


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The only true Organic Fertilizer that supplies the humus 
and necessary nutrients for San Diego soils. 

slow, deep irrigation where possible, 
but most of us have to put up with 
overhead sprinkling. 

If you have arilbreds you will want 
to feed them more than the tall 
beardeds, and they are especially re- 
ceptive to foliar feeding and to trace 
elements. All irises will appreciate a 
side dressing now of dairy manure, 
but especially the arilbreds — of course 
keeping it away from contact with the 
rhizomes. Agricultural gypsum should 
be spread within the arilbred clumps 
now also. 

This is the time also to watch for 
pests. Leaf spot is easier to prevent 
than to cure, and it would be a good 
time to give all plants a good spraying 
with a fungicide containing zineb. Be 
sure to repeat the spray treatment after 
an interval of a week to ten days, and 
then again later on if leaf spot begins 
to show. The life cycle of the fungus 
causing leaf spot is such that it is 
necessary to repeat the spraying 
not later than ten days after. If 
leaf spot already has a good start in 
the garden, cut short the worst leaves 
but do not cut all leaves back on a 
plant. Burn such leaves, never com- 
post them. 

Aphids attack irises and are es- 
pecially attracted to and detrimental 
to arilbreds. The most prevalent type 
is the so-called tulip aphis. The first 
control for aphids is to get rid of any 
ants with chlordane or dieldrin. There 
are many aphis sprays on the market, 
but of late the best results are reported 
with the systemic type, since the poison 
travels through the plant and kills in 
areas the spray itself may have missed, 
and the effects last longer. Be sure 
to follow rigorously the directions on 
the package. Such sprays can be dang- 
erous when not used correctly. 

If you have noticed how quickly 
drops of water run off iris leaves you 
will realize the necessity of adding a 
spreader to any spray, whether it be 
for fertilizing or for pest control. You 
will find specialized spreaders at cer- 
tain nurseries, but you can also use a 
teaspoonful of a mild liquid detergent 
to a couple of gallons of spray ma- 

Some spray materials can be mixed 
together, and I like to add a small 
amount of liquid fertilizer to the zineb 
spray. Usually the labels on sprays 
will state whether they are compatible 
with other materials. Where you can 
combine foliar feeding and pest con- 
trol you save the separate physical 
work, and that time saved can help a 
lot in this season when you probably 
have other plants in the garden want- 
ing attention, too. 

Excellent results have been reported 
with a foliar feeding of liquid potash 
about six weeks before bloom time, or 
about the middle of March. I have 
not yet tried this, but I have been told 
it sometimes makes enormous differ- 
ences in intensification of color. 

At the same time you fertilize your 
bearded irises, don't forget to feed the 
spurias as well. Bulbous irises should 
have a shot of superphosphate, and 
Louisiana irises some acid fertilizer, 
the type you use on your camellias or 

If all this sounds like a lot of work 
just realize that many of your other 
plants can use exactly the same treat- 
ment at this time, and you can work 
them all at the same time. Your irises 
would probably perform nicely without 
doing any of these things, as they will 
fend for themselves better than most 
plants, but the extra attention pays 
dividends in size of bloom, in color, 
in promotion of increase, and certainly 
in the production of championship 
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FEBRUARY. 1966 - MARCH, 1966 



by Morrison W. Doty 

San Diego Fuchsia Society 

FOLLOWING an unusually wet 
winter in Southern California this 
February we find all plants, even 
the trees, grown far beyond their usual 
new greenness. The deep watering, 
leeching out the injurious minerals 
that affect both our soil and com- 
mercial water, has helped a lot. Many 
gardeners, new to this area, are un- 
aware that we must do this deep water- 
ing ourselves fairly often, instead of 
waiting for rains that seldom come 
often enough to prevent the accumula- 
tion of salts and alkali in the soil. So 

Garnet Nursery 

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much soft rainwater may show in our 
fuchsias this Spring as lush lovely 
new growth. This is especially true 
where Fall, or dormant early pruning 
was done, but may increase the risk of 
frost kill, with our present erratic 
weather tendencies. 

Considering this, and our cold late 
Springs of the past year or two, it is 
safer not to encourage heavy growth 
by very early feeding. However, they 
should be checked for sufficient mois- 
ture every few days, especially if grown 
in containers. Wet drippy heavy fogs 
at night, or even light rains often lead 
the new grower to expect moisture 
around the roots of container plants, 
while instead sunny days and warm 
winds are drying them out danger- 

These sunny warm days also often 
lure the fuchsia fancier into pruning 


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before all danger of killing frost is 
past. Despite the claims of less die- 
back and frost damage in Fall pruning 
as the sap is going down, more people 
still prune in Spring. Fuchsia pruning 
should be safe from frost by mid- 
February, except in coldest county 
areas. Since all your fine bloom comes 
only on new growth, pruning is quite 
essential, and should be carefully stud- 
ied for best possible results. 

Keep in mind always the type of 
fuchsia and how and where it is to 
be used in your garden; Bush (erect or 
trailing, high or low, for border, front 
or background), Basket (full or ^ low 
trailing); tree; or espalier. Don't be 
afraid to cut new growth back each 
year to within 3 or 4 leaf nodes of the 
proper outline for its type. Remove 
straggly, crossing or weak old growth, 
and trim bush plants to proper height 
for their place and purpose in the 
garden. Trim, retie, and keep within 
the wall pattern, your espaliered plants. 
Tree types must be shorn to shape, 
with trunk buds rubbed off to discour- 
age bushing, and basket fuchsias may 
be cut back almost to the edge of the 
container. But it is always best to leave 
a little foliage to provide needed vi- 
tality. After pruning, proper pinching 
back of tips as they grow, will keep 
them in shape, and prevent heavy 
blooming until the plant has grown 

While pruning, select cuttings for 
propagating new stock. With sharp 
shears cut from new tip growth, pieces 
not over 3 or 4 inches long of your 
most vigorous plants, and press the 
cut end down firmly past 1 or 2 leaf 
nodes into a flat of moist sharp sand. 
The cuttings may be dipped in a plant 
hormone first and leaf mold can be 
added to the sand. Placed in a warm, 
protected nook with filtered sunshine, 
the cuttings should be about ready to 
put into little pots in three weeks, 
without any bottom heat. 

Fuchsias are so adaptable to most 
good plant foods, that an ordinary 
mixture of one-third each of leaf mold, 
sandy loam and steer manure, will 
grow them about as well as expensive 
commercial mixtures. To promote 
sturdy green growth before blooming, 
a formula high in nitrogen is advised 
for fertilizing, with a decrease of nitro- 
gen and an increase of phosphorus 
later for heavy blooming. Every 2 or 3 
weeks through the summer a feeding 
of good fish emulsion base fertilizer is 
recommended. No plant in the garden 
responds more beautifully to loving 
care, yet is less demanding than our 
exotic little rain-forest flower, the 



Fifth in a Series of Articles on the Native Cacti of San Diego County 

by R. Mitchel Beauchamp 

tion of flowers and fruit gives the 
plant an exposition of color from 
March to the middle of summer. 

Those interested in seeing M. dioica 
in its natural setting will find it abund- 
ant wherever it occurs. The nature 
trail of Cabrillo National Monument 
is quite a worthwhile route for easy 
access to most of the plants that grow 
on the Point. Another area for view- 
ing is located in Telegraph Canyon 
which is about three miles east of 
Chula Vista. The plants are located on 
the south-facing slope and are now 
being threatened by the approaching 
wave of tract homes. 

Photo by Mitchel Beauchamp 

John [fl\z\ 
book* era 



craft shop 

;i Ifanhoe Avenue 
folia California 


The Fishhook Cactus, Mammillaria 
dioica, is a native cacti for which San 
Diego County- is the northern limit of 
its distribution. The range of M. 
dioica extends from Cape San Lucas, 
the most southern tip of Baja Cali- 
fornia, northward along the west coast 
to our county. The northern limit in 
the county is in the vicinity of Del 
Mar. The deepest inland the cactus 
occurs is recorded at Cowles Mountain. 
The form which grows in the desert 
is considered distinct enough to be 
treated as a variety. M. dioica var. 
incerta is a more robust plant than its 
coastal cousin. The famous cactus 
monographers, Britton and Rose, noted 
that in February, 1922 Mr. C. R. 
Orcutt sent them a plant from Mason 
Valley which was the largest they had 
ever seen. It was more than 33cm. 
long, 10cm. in diameter and weighed 
3 lbs. 13 oz. The more common M. 
dioica of the coast does not attain the 
dimensions of its desert descendant. 
Mature plants may vary in size from 
two to eight inches in height. 

A characteristic aspect of the genus 
Mammillaria is its aerole. The evolu- 
tion of the cacti toward a more com- 
pact structure in order to survive the 
xerophytic climates of the western 
hemisphere has lead to the formation 
of the aerole. On most plants the 
process of producing leaves, branches 
and flowers is assumed by the different 

types of buds of the plant. In the 
cacti the aerole is the center of growth 
of these parts. Because of the modifi- 
cation of the cacti the straight and 
hooked spines of the plant are actually 
modified or evolved leaves. 

Mammillaria have two unusual fea- 
tures that distinguish them from the 
other members of the cactus family. 
One of these is that the aeroles of the 
Mammillaria have taken the form of 
nipples. The Latin word for this type 
of structure is mammilla; hence the 
name, Mammillaria. The other feature 
is that the stems, flowers and fruit do 
not emerge from the aerole as is us- 
ually the case. Instead they emerge 
from between the nipples or more 
precisely, tubercles, and in so doing 
burst the epidermis of the plant. This 
seems to violate the purpose of the 
aerole but by this action the plant is 
less dependent upon this structure and 
in some unknown way may benefit 
from this independence. 

The fruit appears a short time after 
the flowers are spent. They protrude 
from the plant body in the shape of 
small, red balls or clubs. The flowers 
begin to appear in March near the top 
of the plant in a complete circle. When 
in bloom the cream colored flowers 
with their purple midrib on each petal 
gives the effect of a "halo." The fruit 
appears in June and also encircles the 
cactus with a red ring. The combina- 

Commercial and Artistic 





CALL 234-5344 

121 W. Juniper— Just off First Ave. Bus 

Convenient Parking 


"lower Shop 


Flowers for all Occasions 
3334 FM Ave. 233-7101 

FEBRUARY. 1966 -MARCH, 1966 





Although the term seems to be in 
general use, information is scanty as 
to its origin. Maurice Mullay, of Col- 
umbus, Ohio, has come up with the 
most lucid explanation to date. He 
says, "Currently the term, 'Green fing- 
ers' is in wider usage in England and 
one tart English expatriate described 
'Green thumb' as an American vul- 
garization. However, Chaucer, in his 
Canterbury Tales, attributes a 'thombe 
of gold' to the color of their thumbs. 
Probably the soundest hypothesis for 
the term's origin is given by the man- 
ager of a Boston Horticultural House, 
who says that his Scottish gardener 
father used to tell him that a green 
thumb stained from the algae on the 
green house flower pots was the trade- 
mark of a gardener. This is consistent 
with the oldest and by far the most 
charming of all legends about the 
origin of 'green thumb.' 

The story goes : 

In the olden days there once lived in 

Italy a monk named Fra Antonio. One 
of his important duties was the care of 
the cloister garden. So successful was 
he in the growing of herbs, fruit trees, 
flowers, and other plants that he be- 
came the wonder, and almost envy, of 
all of his brothers. When asked the 
secret of his success as a gardener, he 
always shrugged his shoulders and re- 
plied, "I'm sure I do not know, ex- 
cept that I love the plants." 

One day he was working in his 
garden when two of the monks ap- 
proached from behind his back. When 
he finally turned and saw them, the 
senior monk smiled and said, "I know 
why Fra Antonio can make plants 
grow so well. See, he has a green 

Fra Antonio looked down at his 
hands and sure enough, his right 
thumb was green from the plants that 
he had been handling. From that day 
to this, all good gardeners have been 
said to have a "green thumb." 

Plantings From Containers 


Clay Soils 

By Dara Emery 

Establishing container material of 
native California plants in clay soils 
frequently presents difficult problems. 
These soils, rock hard when dry and 
gummy when wet, are very different 
from the sandy mix used in gallon 
cans or other containers. Plants, both 
native and non-native, which are 
healthy specimens in containers may 
become stunted or die for no apparent 
reason when planted in local gardens. 
If the clay soil removed from the 
planting hole is replaced entirely by 
sandy loam, the surrounding clay tends 
to act as a container through which 
the roots of the new plant do not 
penetrate. The plant then becomes 
root-bound. Also, since water seeps 
very slowly through clay soil, but 
readily into the sandy mix of the con- 
tainer or planting hole, heavy rains or 
heavy watering may cause excess water 
to accumulate around the roots of the 
new plant. This may cause root rot 
which severely checks the growth of 
the plant. 

To avoid such problems, a large 
planting hole, about twice the size of 
the root ball, should be dug and the 
new plant set out in a mixture of the 
clay soil removed from the hole and 
one-fourth to one-third compost or 
peat moss. This mixture gives some- 
what better drainage and aeration than 
the garden clay and provides a transi- 
tion zone through which the develop- 
ing roots can grow into the garden 
soil. This mixture will also prevent 
excess water from accumulating around 
the former root ball. 

Native plants such as many species 
of Ceanothus and Manzanita, which 
are marginal in clay soils to begin 
with, and Lemonade Berry and Sugar 
Bush respond well to this treatment. 
These plants when set out in late fall 
or winter, should be watered when 
planted and not allowed to dry out 
during the next few months. In the 
dry periods of the year one good 
watering a month should be sufficient 
in clay soils. Non-native nursery ma- 
terial can also be established in clay 
soils using this method. 



(Under the sponsorship of 
The Park and Recreation Dept., City of San Diego) 
Third Tuesday, Floral Building, 8 p.m. 

Pres.: Mrs. Emmet W. Fowler 454-1795 

8497 La Jolla Shores Dr., La Jolla 92037 


First Thursday, Floral Building, 7:30 p.m. 

Pres.: Mrs. John Casale 465-0997 

9372 Loren Drive, La Mesa 92042 



Third Friday, Homes of Members, 10 a.m. 

Pres.: Miss Myrle Patterson 224-1572 

4310 Piedmont Dr., S.D. 92107 
Rep. Dir.: Mrs. Anuta Lynch 298-1400 

202 Lewis, S.D. 92103 


Meets every Thursday, 12m to I p.m. 
Garden House, Grape and 101 Civic Center 

Pres.: James Saraceno 274-2628 

3366 Lloyd St., S.D 92117 
Rep.: Mrs. Donald A. Innis 278-6513 

1827 Puterbaugh, S.D. 92103 


First Wednesday, Floral Building, 7:30 p.m. 

Pres.: Robert Bradshaw 466-4877 

9654 Candy Lane, La Mesa 92040 
Rep. Dir.: J. E. Henderson 274-1754 

3503 Yosemite, S.D. 9210? 


Fourth Monday, Floral Bldg., 7:30 p.m. 

Pres.: Ellsworth A. O'Bleness 223-0833 

4636 Niagara St., S.D. 92107 
Rep.: Dr. J. W. Troxell 282-9131 

4950 Canterbury Drive, S.D. 921 16 


Meets First Monday, 8 p.m. 

Barbour Hall, Pershing and University 

Pres.: Gladys L. Gill 283-2898 

4828 33rd St., S.D. 92116 
Rep.: Julia Bohe 282-7422 

3145 No. Mt. View Dr., S.D. 92116 


Third Friday, Floral Building, 7:30 p.m. 

Pres.: Ferd I. Thebus 

451 I Mt. Gaywas Dr., S.D. 92117 
Rep.: Miss Mary Panek 

4679 Voltaire St., S.D. 92107 



First Friday, Silver Gate Savings & Loan Bldg., 
Ocean Beach, 10:00 a.m. 

Pres.: Miss Myrle Patterson 224-1572 

4310 Piedmont St., S.D. 92107 
Rep.: Beverly Kulot 222-5480 

2732 Azalea Dr., S.D. 92106 


Second Sunday, Floral Bldg., 1-5 p.m. 

Pres.: George Fujimoto 
1962 Euclid Ave., S.D. 92105 

Rep.: J. F. Parrish 
5628 Del Cerro Ave., S.D. 92120 



First Saturday, Floral Building, 2 p.m. 

Pres.: Reuben V. Vaughn 223-2629 

1041 Le Roy St., S.D. 92106 
Rep.: Jack Ward 420-5513 

823 Halecrest St., Chula Vista 92010 


Second Friday, Floral Building, 7:30 p.m. 

Pres.: Mr. Ray Greer 469-8970 

3756 Kenwood Dr., Spring Valley 92077 

Rep.: Mrs Lester Crowder 295-5871 

3130 Second St., S.D. 92103 


Second and Fourth Thursday, 7:30 p.m. 

Pres.: John Basney 

4731 Conrad Ave., S.D. 92117 
Rep.: John Basney 

4731 Conrad Ave., S.D. 92117 



Fourth Tuesday, Floral Building, 7:30 p.m. 

Pres.: Henry Boyd 264-1283 

6581 Broadway, S.D. 921 14 
Rep ■ Mrs. R. M. Middleton 296-3246 

3944 Centre St., S.D. 92103 


Meets 3rd Sunday, Floral Bldg., 2:30 p.m. 

Pres.: James E. Watkins 728-7337 

2925 Los Alisos Dr., Fallbrook 92028 
Rep.: Mrs. N. R. Carrington 453-3383 

6283 Buisson St., S.D. 92122 


First Tuesday, Floral Building, 8 p.m. 
Pres.: Ralph Ameele 273-1084 

3160 Chicago St., S.D 921 17 
Rep.: Byron H. Geer 222-2044 

3370 Talbot St., S.D. 92106 


Second Monday, Floral Building, 8 p.m. 

Pres.: James Watson 295-0963 

38 I 1 1/ 2 Third Ave., S.D. 92103 
Rep.: Mrs. Eugene Cooper 295-7938 

4444 Arista Dr., S.D. 92103 


Third Monday, Floral Building, 8 p.m. 

Pres.: Mrs. James R. Buman 277-4872 

4651 Mt. Alifan Dr., S.D. 92111 
Rep.: Mrs. Felix White 264-4440 

5282 Imperial Ave., S.D. 921 14 


First Wednesday, Floral Building, 10:30 a.m 

Pres.: Mrs. C. W. Benson 274-1626 

3640 Crown Pt. Dr., S.D. 92109 
Rep.: Mrs. Roland S. Hoyt 296-2757 

2271 Ft. Stockton Dr. S.D. 92103 



San Diego Branch 

Fourth Monday, Barbour Hall, University & 
Pershinq. 8 pm. 
Pres.: Mrs. Eugene Cooper 295-7938 

4444 Arista Dr., S.D. 92103 
San Miguel Branch 

First Wednesday, Youth Center, Lemon Grove 
7:30 p.m. 
Pres : Mrs. J. W. Lowry 463-4762 

/425 Roosevelt, Lemon Grove 92055 


First Wednesday, 1:30 Seven Oaks Community 
Center Bernardo Oaks Dr. 

Pres.: Fred W. Walters 743-1486 

12048 Callado Dr., S.D. 92128 


First Friday, VFW Hall, Carlsbad, 1:30 p.m. 

Pres.: Mrs. Wanda Bond 
VFW Hal!, Pio Pico & Oak St., Carlsbad 92008 


Second Tuesday, Norman Park Recreation 
Center, 7:30 p.m. 

Pres.: Mr. August H. Goerke 420-3930 

481 Flower, Chula Vista 92110 


Meets Third Wednesday, 1:30 p.m. 

C.V. Woman's Club Bldg., 357 G St., C.V. 

Pres.: Mrs. John A. Rector 422-2583 

266 Whitney, Chula Vista 92010 


Meets Third Tuesday, 9:30 a.m. 

Pres.: Mrs. Stanley Fletcher 
3390 Chicago St., S.D. 92117 



Meets Third Wednesday, 8 p.m. 
Christ Church Parish Hall, Coronado 

Pres.: Cdr. Philip H. Dennler, U.S. Navy Ret. 

339 B Ave., Coronado 92118 


Third Monday, Barbour Hall, University & 
Pershing, 8 p.m. 

Pres.: Charles Williams 284-2317 

4240 46th, S.D. 92115 


Fourth Thursday, Red Cross Bldg, 1113 Adella 
Lane, 9:30 a.m. 

Pres.: Mrs. George Kunberger 435-4691 

101 Ocean Drive, Coronado 92118 


First Wednesday, Encinitas Union Elementary 
School, 7:30 p.m. 
Pres.: Mrs. I. F. Nichols 753-5409 

159 Diana, Leucadia 92046 


Second Tuesday, Members Homes, 1:30 p.m. 

Pres.: Mrs. G. F. Shearer 745-9114 

P.O. Box 391, Valley Center 


Third Friday, V/omen's Club House, 1:30 p.m. 

Pres.: Mrs. Ralph D Goldsmith 745-3013 

Rte. 3, Box 275, Escondido 92025 


Last Thursday, Fallbrook Woman's Clubhouse, 
1:30 p.m. 

Pres.: Mrs. Tom John 728-7423 

152 Emilia Lane, Fallbrook 92028 


Second Monday, La Mesa Chamber of Commerce 
Bldg., University Ave., La Mesa 92041 

Pres.: Mrs. Lowell E. Elson 469-8009 

3451 Calavo Dr., Spring Valley 92077 


2nd Tuesday, So. Bay Com. Center, 1:30 p.m. 

Pres.: Mrs. Alice Loomis 424-7235 

874 Fourth, Imperial Beach 92032 


2nd Monday, Lakeside Farm School, 7:30 p.m. 

Pres.: Mrs. Louis Griffin 448-4199 

12024 Lakeside Ave., Lakeside 92040 


3rd Thursday, La Mesa Woman's Club, 1:45 p.m. 

Pres.: Mrs. Harry K. Ford 583-4320 

4851 Lorraine Dr., S.D. 92115 


(Garden Section) 

First Tuesday, Lemon Grove Woman's Club 

House, I p.m. 

Pres.: Mrs. James H. Sharp 466-8300 

8124 Alton Dr., Lemon Grove 92045 


Third Wednesday, National City Community 
Bldg., 7:30 p.m. 

Pres.: Ray W. Daniels 282-0370 

2462 Tuberose St., S.D. 92005 


Second Sat., 1:00 p.m. Seacoast Hall, Encinitas 

Pres.: H. Marshall Chadwell 755-9219 

R. I Box M32, Del Mar 


Second Wednesday, S. Oceanside School 
Auditorium, 7:30 p.m. 
Pres.: Mrs. J. A. Johnson 722-2792 

Rosicrucian Fellowship 
P.O. Box 713, Oceanside 92057 


Meet second Monday, 7:30 p.m. Community 
Club House, Gresham and Diamond Sts., 
Pacific Beach 

Pres.: Mrs. Raymond P. Smith 488-0830 

4995 Fanuel, Pacific Beach 92109 


Third Saturday, I p.m., Palomar College Foreign 
Language Building, Room F22 

Pres.: Mrs. Charles R. Shafer 729-4815 

2172 Chestnut, Carlsbad 92008 


2nd Wednesday, 9:30 a.m., Community Church 

Pres.: Mrs. Donald Weston 748-3487 

13835 Terrilee Dr., Poway 92064 


Second Tuesday — Club House, 2:00 p.m. 

Pres.: Mrs. John E. Grimm 756-1106 

P O Box 241, Rancho Santa Fe 92067 


Fourth Tuesday, Homes of Members, I p.m. 

Pres.: Mrs. Al Sallv 
5721 Breton Way, S.D. 92120 



Second Monday, 7:30 p.m. Meets at home of 

Pres.: Mrs. Cleoves Hardin 469-3038 

9295 Harness Rd., Spring Valley 92077 


Third Wednesday, Seacoast Savings Building, 
Encinitas, 10 a.m. 

Pres.: Mrs Waldo Vogt 755-4772 

773 Barbara Ave., Solana Beach 92075 


Second Monday, Ramona Women's Club House, 
5th and Main, 9:30 a.m. 

Pres • Mrs. William Robinson 789-1987 

Third & H Sts., Ramona 92065 


First Monday, 7:30 p.m. Meets at home of 
Temporary President 

Temp Pres.: Cleoves Hardin 469-3038 

9195 Harness Rd., Spring Valley 92077 


First Friday, Vista Rec. Center, 7:00 p.m. 
Pres.: Mrs. W. L. Larsen 
320 Mar Vista Dr., Vista 92083 



Second Tuesday, 2 p.m. Family Association 

Pres.: Mrs. Clara Haskins 465-0910 

2352 El Prado, Lemon Grove 92045 

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Ilia SUaut 









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10 A.M. - 6 P.M